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ÎSÂ ALEYHİSSELÂM

Allahü teâlâ Kur'ân-ı kerîmde meâlen buyurdu ki:

(Nûh ve İbrâhim aleyhimesselâmdan) sonra onların arkalarından Peygamberlerimizi ard arda gönderdik. Hepsinden sonra da Meryem oğlu Îsâ'yı (aleyhisselâm) onlara tâbi kıldık, peygamber olarak gönderdik. Ona İncîl'i verdik. Ona tâbi olan mü'minlerin kalblerinde birbirlerine şefkat ve merhamet ihsân ettik. (Hadîd sûresi: 27)

Bir vakit Meryem oğlu Îsâ (aleyhisselâm) şöyle demişti: "Ey İsrâiloğulları! Ben size Allahü teâlânın peygamberiyim. Benden evvel Mûsâ'ya (aleyhisselâm) nâzil olan Tevrât'ı tasdîk edici ve benden sonra gelecek Ahmed (Muhammed aleyhisselâm) ismindeki peygamberin müjdecisiyim. (Sâf sûresi: 6)

Vallâhi Meryem'in oğlu Îsâ (aleyhisselâm) âdil bir hakem olarak mutlaka (yeryüzüne) inecek ve mutlaka haçı kıracak, domuzu öldürecek, cizyeyi kaldıracak, genç-dişi develer başıboş bırakılacak, onlara rağbet edilmeyecek, bütün düşmanlıklar, küsüşmeler ve hasedlikler muhakkak sûrette kalkacak. Îsâ aleyhisselâm insanları mala dâvet edecek fakat malı hiçbir kimse kabûl etmeyecek. (Hadîs-i şerîf-El-Cem'u Beyn-es-Sahîhayn)

Îsâ bin Meryem, Muhammed'i dîni üzere tasdîk ettiği hâlde iner. Deccâli öldürür. Sonra kıyâmet kopar. (Hadîs-i şerîf-Ahmed bin Hanbel, Bezzâr, Taberânî)

Îsâ aleyhisselâm, insan ve peygamber idi. Allahü teâlâ onu babasız yarattı. Kudüs'ün Beyt-i Lahm kasabasında doğdu. Annesi, hazret-i Meryem'dir. Roma İmparatorunun Şam vâlisi, babasız doğduğu için onu ve annesini öldürmek istedi. Annesi onu alarak Mısır'a götürdü. Hazret-i Îsâ on iki yaşına gelinceye kadar Mısır'da kaldılar. Sonra tekrar Kudüs'e gelerek Nâsıra şehrine yerleştiler. Otuz yaşına girince, Allahü teâlâ tarafından İsrâiloğullarına peygamber olarak gönderildi. Kendisine dört büyük kitabdan biri olan İncil verildi (Bkz. İncil). İnsanların Allahü teâlâya inanmalarını ve O'nun emirlerini yapıp yasaklarından sakınmalarını ve isyânda bulunmamalarını istedi. İsrâiloğulları bu dâveti kabûl etmediler. Îsâ aleyhisselâm var gücü ile gayret göstermesine rağmen pek az kişi inandı. İsrâiloğulları ona inanmadıkları gibi, dâvetine karşı çıktılar ve günden güne hırçınlaştılar. Îsâ aleyhisselâmın yumuşaklığını görerek inanmadılar. Hattâ daha da ileri giderek hazret-i Îsâ'yı öldürmeye teşebbüs ettiler. Bunun üzerine hazret-i Îsâ, kendisine îmân edenler arasından seçtiği havârî adı verilen on iki kişiden Allahü teâlâya îmân ve ibâdet edeceklerine ve kendisine yardımcı olacaklarına dâir söz aldı. İnanmayanlara mûcizeler gösterdi.

Yahûdîlerden bir topluluk, Îsâ aleyhisselâm ve annesi hazret-i Meryem'e dil uzattılar. Îsâ aleyhisselâm bunu duyunca onlar hakkında bedduâda bulundu. Allahü teâlâ bu duâyı kabûl edip, hazret-i Îsâ'ya ve annesine dil uzatanları maymun ve domuza çevirdi. Bu durumu gören yahûdîler, hâdiseyi aralarında görüştüler. Hepsi hazret-i Îsâyı öldürmek üzere anlaştılar. Hazret-i Îsâ'yı aramaya başladılar. Îsâ aleyhisselâmın havârîlerinden Yehûda (Judas) birkaç kuruş karşılığı Îsâ aleyhisselâmın yerini haber verdi. Îsâ aleyhisselâmı yakalamak için yahûdîlerle berâber eve girince, Allahü teâlâ, Yehûda'yı Îsâ aleyhisselâma benzetti. Yahûdîler de onu Îsâ aleyhisselâm diye yakaladılar ve haça (çarmıha) gererek öldürdüler. Allahü teâlâ, Îsâ aleyhisselâmı göğe kaldırdı. Îsâ aleyhisselâm bu sırada otuz üç yaşındaydı. Îsâ aleyhisselâm göğe kaldırıldıktan kırk sene sonra, Romalılar Kudüs'e hücum etti. Yahûdîlerin çoğunu öldürüp, bir kısmını esir ettiler. Şehri yağmaladılar.Kitaplarını yaktılar. Îsâ aleyhisselâma yaptıklarının cezâsı olarak yahûdîler hakîr ve zelîl oldular.

Hıristiyanlar Îsâ aleyhisselâmın haça gerilip orada öldüğüne, fakat sonra dirilip göğe çıktığına inanırlar. Müslümanlar ise, Îsâ aleyhisselâmın haça gerilmediğine, doğrudan göğe kaldırıldığına inanırlar. Bu husus Kur'ân-ı kerîmde Nisâ sûresi 158. âyetinde meâlen şöyle bildirildi: "Onu asmadılar, onu öldürmediler. Bilakis Allahü teâlâ onu katına yükseltti..." (Nişancızâde, Taberî, İbn-i Neccâr, Harputlu İshâk Efendi)

Îsâ aleyhisselâm kıyâmet yaklaşınca, Şam'da Ümeyye Câmii minâresine inecek. Muhammed aleyhisselâmın şerîatine göre amel edecek. Evlenecek ve çocukları olacak. Hazret-i Mehdî ile buluşacak, kırk sene yaşadıktan sonra Medîne'de vefât edecek. Hücre-i Seâdete yâni Peygamber efendimizin kabrinin bulunduğu odaya gömülecektir. (Yûsuf Nebhânî ve İbniHacer)

Îsâ aleyhisselâm, bu ümmetin imâmına uyup arkasında namaz kılacaktır. (Muhammed Ma'sûm)

Mustafa İsmail Meryem

Mustafa İsmail Meryem

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JHALarMmw48

Abdulbasit Abdussamed (Chapter of Mary)

Abdulbasit Abdussamed (Chapter of Mary)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yu9Ngc6ukso&feature=related

Abdussamed(Hz MERYEM filminden görüntüler eşliğinde)

Abdussamed(Hz MERYEM filminden görüntüler eşliğinde)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r632eIda-MY&feature=fvw

Shaisha Meryem (türkçe english studio)

Shaisha Meryem (türkçe english studio)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bPSeUdKqrE0&feature=related


Îsâ aleyhisselâmın annesi.

Hazret-i Meryem’in babası, Dâvûd aleyhisselâmın soyundan ve Benî İsrâil’in büyüklerinden İmrân adında bir zâttır. (Bakınız: İmrab Suresi)

Bu zâtın hanımı Hunne , çocuğu olmadığı için; “Allahü teâlâ bana bir çocuk ihsân ederse, onu Beytül Mukaddese hizmetçi yapacağım.” diye adakta bulunmuştu. O zaman erkek çocukları Beytül Mukaddese hizmetçi olarak adamak âdetti. Hunne hâmileyken kocası İmrân vefât etti. Bir müddet sonra bir kız çocuğu doğurdu ve adını, Allah’ın kulu mânâsına gelen “Meryem” koydu. “Yâ Rabbî! Ne yapayım kız doğurdum, sen onu kabûl buyur.” diyerek, Allahü teâlâya yalvardı ve çocuğunu alıp, Beytül Mukaddese götürdü. “Alınız bu çocuk buraya adaktır.” diyerek Meryem’i oradaki hizmetçilere bıraktı. Hazret-i Meryem büyük bir zât olan İmran’ın kızı olduğundan birçok kimse onu büyütüp, yetiştirmek istemişti. Fakat teyzesi Elisa ’nın kocası ve peygamber olan Zekeriyya aleyhisselâm, Meryem’i alıp evine götürdü. Hazret-i Meryem, teyzesinin yanında büyüdü. Daha sonra Zekeriyya aleyhisselâm ona, Beytül Mukaddese’de husûsî bir oda yaptırdı. Hazret-i Meryem odasına çekildi ve ibâdetle meşgul oldu. Yanına Zekeriyya aleyhisselâmdan başka kimse giremezdi.

Her gidişinde yanında yiyecek birşey olduğunu görürdü. Bu hususta Kur’ân-ı kerîmde meâlen şöyle buyrulmaktadır: "Rabbi Meryem’i güzel bir kabul ile kabul buyurdu, onu iyi bir şekilde yetiştirdi ve Zekeriyya peygamberi de ona kefil (himâyesine memur) kıldı. Zekeriyya ne zaman Meryem’in bulunduğu mihraba girdiyse, onun yanında bir yiyecek buldu: “Ey Meryem! Bu sana nereden geliyor?” dedi. O da: “Bu, Allah tarafından; şüphe yok ki, Allah dilediğini hesabsız olarak rızıklandırır.” dedi. (Âl-i İmrân sûresi : 37)

Hazret-i Meryem, on beş yaşındayken Yûsuf-i Neccâr adında biriyle nişanlanmıştı, fakat onunla evlenmedi. Allahü teâlâ kendisine babasız olarak bir çocuk vereceğini müjdeledi. Bu hususta Kur’ân-ı kerîmde meâlen şöyle buyrulmaktadır:

Melekler: “Ey Meryem! Allah kendinden bir kelimeyle (bir emirle yaratılacak çocuğu) sana müjdeliyor, ismi Meryem’in oğlu Mesih-Îsâ’dır. Dünyâda da, âhirette de şânı yücedir, hem de Allah’a yakın olanlardan...” demişlerdi. Meryem: “Ey Rabbim! Bana bir insan dokunmamışken nasıl benim bir çocuğum olabilir?” dedi. Allahü teâlâ şöyle buyurdu: “Doğrudur, sana bir kimse dokunmamıştır, fakat Allahü teâlâ dilediğini yaratır ve O, bir şeyi murâd edince ona sâdece “ol” der, o hemen oluverir. (Âl-i İmrân sûresi: 45-47)

Hazret-i Meryem, Allahü teâlânın dilemesiyle hâmile kaldı. Bundan bir müddet sonra normal hâmilelik hâlleri görülmeye başladı. Yahûdî kavmi hâmile olduğunu anlayınca, ona iftirâ etmeye başladılar. Yapılan dedikodulardan çok üzülen hazret-i Meryem, doğumu yaklaşınca, insanlardan uzak olan, Kudüs’ün 10 km güneyindeki Beyt-i Lahm adı verilen kasabaya çekildi. Doğumun ilk alâmetleri belirdiği sırada bulunduğu yerin bahçesinde yürürken, kurumuş bir hurma ağacının altına geldi. Doğum sancıları şiddetlendiğinden bu ağaca yaslandı. Nihâyet, yaslandığı kuru hurma ağacının altında hazret-i Îsâ dünyâya geldi. İnsanların kendisine ağır ithamlarda bulunarak iftirâ yapacaklarından iyice endişelenmeye başlamıştı. Bu sırada kendisine ilhâm edildiği Kur’ân-ı kerîmde meâlen şu şekilde bildirilmektedir: (Cebrâil, yüksek bir yerde bulunan) Meryem’e aşağı tarafından şöyle çağırdı: “Sakın üzülme, Rabbin senin alt yanında bir su arkı yarattı. Hurmanın da dalını kendine doğru silkele, üzerine devşirilmiş tâze hurmalar dökülsün. Artık ye, iç, gözün aydın olsun. Eğer insanlardan birini görürsen Ben Rahmana (Allah’a) bir oruç (susmak) adadım. Onun için bugün hiç kimseye aslâ söz söylemeyeceğim.” de. (Meryem sûresi : 24-26).

Hazret-i Meryem’in Beyt-i Lahm ’de olduğunu ve çocuk doğurduğunu öğrenen Yahûdî ler, toplanıp Beyt-i Lahm’e gitiler. Hazret-i Meryem, onların geldiğini öğrenince, kucağında çocuğuyla berâber onların yanına gitti. Onu kucağında bir çocukla gören İsrâiloğulları, hakâret etmeye başladılar. “Ey Meryem! Sen çok çirkin bir iş yaptın. Hâlbuki sen çok temiz bir âileye mensupsun.” dediklerinde; hazret-i Meryem onların kaba sözlerine karşı hiç ses çıkarmadan parmağıyla işâret ederek çocuğu gösterip; “Buna sorun.” dedi. Onun bu hareketini görenler çıkışarak; “Biz beşikteki çocukla nasıl konuşuruz. O çocuk bize cevap veremez.” dediler. Bu sırada kundaktaki çocuk (Îsâ aleyhisselâm) annesinin işâretiyle dile geldi ve mûcize olarak konuşmaya başladı. Bu hâl, Kur’ân-ı kerîmde meâlen şöyle bildirilmektedir: "Ben cenâb-ı Hakk’ın kudreti ile yarattığı bir kulum. Bana kitap verdiği gibi peygamberlik de vermiştir. (Bu gerçekleşecektir.) Her nerede olursam olayım, beni mübârek kıldı... (Meryem sûresi: 31, 40)

İsrâiloğulları beşikteki çocuğun şehâdeti üzerine şaşırıp kaldılar, fakat dedikodu yapmaktan ve iftirâlardan da vazgeçmediler.

Hazret-i Îsâ’nın doğduğu sırada Filistin’deki Yahûdî Kralı, çocukları öldürtüyordu. Hazret-i Meryem, oğlu Îsâ’yı (aleyhisselâm) alıp, Mısır’a gitti, on iki sene orada kaldılar. Sonra Kudüs’e gelip, Nâsıra kasabasına yerleştiler. Hazret-i Meryem, oğlu Îsâ aleyhisselâmın göğe kaldırılmasından altı sene sonra vefât etti. (Bkz. Îsâ Aleyhisselâm )

Âl-i İmrân 33, 37, 42, 47; Nîsâ 156; Meryem 16. ve 34.; Enbiyâ 91. ve Tahrim sûresi nin 12. âyetleri hazret-i Meryem’den bahseder. Tahrîm sûresi 12. âyetinde meâlen şöyle buyrulmaktadır:

"... Bir de İmran’ın kızı Meryem’i (misal yaptı) ki, ırzını pek sağlam korumuştu. Biz de ona rûhumuzdan (vâsıtasız olarak yarattığımız ruhtan) üfledik, intikâl ettirdik, o, Rabbinin bütün dînî hükümlerini ve kitaplarını tasdik etti. Hem o, ibâdette devâm edenlerdendi."

Hadîs-i şerîfte de şöyle buyrulmaktadır: “Zamânındaki dünyâ kadınlarının en hayırlısı İmrân kızı Meryem’dir. Bu ümmetin kadınlarının en hayırlısı da Hadîce’dir.”

Hazret-i Meryem, iffetli, fazîletli olup, gece-gündüz hep ibâdetle meşgûl olurdu. O kadar çok ibâdet ederdi ki, ibâdeti İsrâiloğulları arasında darb- ı mesel hâline gelmişti. Allahü teâlâ ona bir çok kerâmetler ve güzel hâller ihsân etmişti. Onun bu hâl ve kerâmetleri meşhûr olup, yayılmıştır. Hazret-i Meryem, o zamanda bulunan kadınların en fazîletlisiydi.

Nitekim Sahîh-i Buhârî’de hazret-i Ali’nin rivâyet ettiği bir hadîs-i şerîfte Peygamber efendimiz sallallahü aleyhi ve sellem buyurdu ki:

"İmrân kızı Meryem, zamânında dünyâda bulunan bütün kadınların hayırlısıdır. Bu ümmetin kadınlarının en hayırlısı da Hadîce’dir (radıyallahü anhümâ)."

Tirmizî ’nin Hazret-i Enes ’ten bildirdiği hadîs-i şerîfte de şöyle buyrulmuştur.

Âlemdeki kadınların en hayırlıları dörttür: Meryem binti İmrân, Fir’avn’ın hanımı Âsiye, Hadîce binti Hüveylid ve Fâtıma binti Muhammed Resûlullah. Kuzey Türk devletı

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Dosya:Gross St Martin - Grablegungsgruppe - Maria (virgin mary).jpg

Meryem, (Arapça: مريم, İbranice: מרים Miriam, Latince: Maria, Yunanca: Μαρία, Ermenice: Մարիամ Mariam) İsa'nın annesi. Meryem, Hıristiyanlık ve İslam dinlerine göre önemli ve kutsal kişilerden biridir. Meryem Ana ve Bakire Meryem olarak da anılır.

Hıristiyan kaynaklarına göre Meryem Edit

Dosya:Mary16thC.jpg

Meryem annesi tarafından daha doğmadan erkek olacağı varsayımı ile Süleyman Mabedi'ne (Beyt-i Makdis) adanmıştı. Kız doğmasına rağmen o zamanlar bir erkek adı olan Meryem adı verildi. Hayatı boyunca Filistin topraklarında yaşadı. Beytüllahim'de babasız olduğuna inanılan çocuğu İsa'yı dünyaya getirdi. Bu doğum nedeniyle Yahudi toplumunun saldırılarına uğradı.

Bir Hıristiyan inanışına göre, Meryem bu saldırılar üzerine St. Jean ile birlikte Türkiye'deki Efes antik kentine göç etmiştır. Meryem'in son yıllarını geçirdiği yerlerden olan Efes ve Meryem Ana Evi günümüzde Selçuk ilçesi sınırları içerisindedeir.[1] Yine bazı Hıristiyan din adamları, Meryemin kayıp mezarının o dönemdeki adı Selefkos olan Silifke'de olduğuna yine İsa'nın ilk kadın müridlerinden olan olan Hagia Thecla ile gömüldüne rivayet ederler. Bugün Hagia Thecla kilisesi ve evi kutsal sayılmaktadır. Papa 9. Benedich, 1803 yılında bu evi hac mekanı ilan etmiştir.

Hıristiyan dünyasında Meryem'in kilise hayatındaki konumu mezhepsel olarak bazı bölünmelere yol açmıştır. Katolik kilisesi,Meryem'in bekaretinin ölene kadar muhafaza edildiğine ve öldüğünde bedeniyle beraber cennete çekildiğine inanmaktadır, Protestanlar ise Günahsız Doğum 'a itikat etmekle beraber, Meryem'in ebedi bekaretini ve göğe çıkışını İncilsel bir dayanağı bulunmadığı gerekçesi ile reddederler. Yeni Ahit'te Meryem hakkında en çok bilgi verilen bölüm, Luka İncili'dir.

İslam kaynaklarına göre Meryem Edit

Dosya:Virgin Mary and Jesus (old Persian miniature).jpg

Kur'an'da birçok kez geçen Meryem, Kur'an'da adı doğrudan telaffuz edilen tek kadındır ve Kur'an'ın 19. suresi Meryem Suresi olarak adlandırılmıştır. Meryem'in ailesi, Al-i İmran, bir başka sureye isim vermiştir.

Meryem'in İslam'da çok önemli bir konumu olduğunu belirten pek çok ayet bulunmaktadır:

Hani Melekler dediler ki: "Meryem! Muhakkak ki Allah seni seçti. Seni tertemiz kıldı hatta seni dünyadaki bütün kadınlara üstün kıldı. Kur'an 3:42[2]
Meryem'in oğlunu ve annesini birer ibret vesilesi kıldık ve onları pınarları akan ve yerleşmeye elverişli yüksekçe bir yere yerleştirdik.Kur'an 23:50[3]

Burada Kuran 19:21'de İsa için kullanılan ve mucize, işaret anlamlarına gelen Ayet terimi[4] Meryem için de yinelenmiş İsa ve Meryem Allah'ın rahmetinin bir simgesi olarak sunulmuştur. Ayrıca "berrak çeşmeler" veya "akarsular" anlamındaki sözcükle cennet, huzur kavramlarıyla bağlantılı olarak manevî arınmışlık simgelenmektedir.[5]

Kur'an'a göre, Meryem, İmran'ın kızıdır. Meryem'e İsa'yı doğuracağı Cebrail tarafından müjdelenmiştir. Doğum insanlardan uzakta, bir hurma ağacının altında gerçekleşir. İsa'nın bir babası olmadığından Meryem utanç içindedir. Ancak ilahi bir ses, kendisine üzülmemesini, doğacak çocuğun şerefli kılındığını söyler. Meryem, bebekle birlikte topluluğun arasında döndüğünde, iffetsizlikle suçlanır. Meryem, iffetli olduğuna kanıt olarak bebeği gösterir. Bebek İsa konuşarak Allah'ın kendisini peygamber yaptığını, annesine iyi davranmayı öğütlediğini söyler. (Meryem Suresi, 19:16-34)[6] Bu bilgiler Luka İncili ile paralellik göstermektedir.

Al-i İmran Suresi'nde ayrıca Meryem'in, Yahya peygamber'in babası olan Zekeriya peygamberin gözetiminde büyüdüğü anlatılır:

Rabbi onu güzellikle kabul buyurdu ve pek güzel bir tarzda yetiştirdi. Onu Zekeriyya'nın eğitim ve himayesine verdi. Zekeriyya onun yanına Mâbede ne zaman girse beraberinde yiyecekler bulurdu. "Meryem! Bu yiyecekleri nereden buluyorsun?" deyince de o: "Bunlar Allah tarafından gönderiliyor. Muhakkak ki Allah dilediğine sayısız rızıklar verir." derdi.Kur'an 3:37[2]

Kur'an'da Meryem'den bahsedilen ayetler Edit

Ayrıca bakınız Edit

Kaynaklar Edit

Kaynakça Edit

Kur'an, çev. Hüseyin Atay, Yurt Yayıncılık, İstanbul, 1998 Nevzat Yüksel, Konularına Göre Kur'an-ı Kerim Fihristi, Bayrak Yayınları, İstanbul, 1995


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Şablon:Redirect2

This article is an overview. For specific views, see: Anglican, Ecumenical, Islamic, Lutheran, Protestant, and Roman Catholic perspectives.
Mary
Şablon:Px
The Madonna in Sorrow, by Sassoferrato, 17th century.
Born Unknown, circa 20 BC; celebrated 8 September[1]
Residence Nazareth, Galilee
Nationality Israelite, Roman Empire[2]
Ethnicity Jewish
Spouse Joseph[3][4]
Children Jesus of Nazareth
Parents (According to the Gospel of James, circa AD 150): Joachim and Anne[5]

Mary, Aramaic, Hebrew: מרים, Maryām, Miriam; Arabic:مريم, Maryam, more commonly referred to as Saint Mary, Mother Mary, Virgin Mary or Lady Mary was a Jewish woman of Nazareth in Galilee. She is identified in the New Testament as the mother of Jesus Christ through divine intervention.[Mt 1:16,18–25] [Lk 1:26–56] Şablon:Bibleref2c-nb[3]

The New Testament describes Mary as a virgin (Greek παρθένος, parthénos).[6] Christians believe that she conceived her son, Jesus Christ, miraculously by the agency of the Holy Spirit. This took place when she was already betrothed (engaged) to Joseph and was awaiting the concluding rite of marriage, the formal home-taking ceremony.[7] She married Joseph and accompanied him to Bethlehem, where Jesus was born.[3][4]

The New Testament begins its account of Mary's life with the Annunciation, where angel Gabriel appeared to her and announced her divine selection to be mother of Jesus. Church tradition and early non-biblical writings state that her parents were an elderly couple named Joachim and Anne. The Bible records Mary's role in key events of the life of Jesus from his virgin birth to his crucifixion. Other apocryphal writings tell of her subsequent death and bodily assumption into heaven.

Christians of the major ancient traditions including the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and the more recent Anglican Communion believe that Mary, as mother of Jesus, is the Mother of God (Μήτηρ Θεοῦ) and the Theotokos, literally, Birthgiver of God. Mary has been an object of veneration in the Christian church since the Apostolic Age. Throughout the ages she has been a favorite subject in Christian art, music, and literature.

There is significant diversity in the Marian beliefs and devotional practices of major Christian traditions. The Catholic Church has a number of Marian dogmas such as the Immaculate Conception and the Assumption of Mary, and venerate her as the Queen of Heaven and Mother of the Church, most Protestants do not share these beliefs.[8][9]

Islam regards Mary as the virgin mother of Jesus who they believe was one of the prophets. In the Qur'an, Mary has one of the bigest chapters. She is treated in the Sura Maryam (Arapça: سورة مريم‎) and Al-i imran.

In ancient sourcesEdit

New TestamentEdit

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Şablon:Quotation

The English name "Mary" comes from the Greek Μαρία, which is a shortened form of Μαριάμ. The New Testament name was based on her original Hebrew name מִרְיָם or Miryam.[10]

Mary, the mother of Jesus, is referred to by name fewer than twenty times in the New Testament.

Specific referencesEdit

  • Luke's gospel mentions Mary most often, identifying her by name twelve times, all of these in the infancy narrative (1:27,30,34,38,39,41,46,56; 2:5, 16,19,34).
  • Matthew's gospel mentions her by name five times, four of these (1:16,18,20; 2:11) in the infancy narrative and only once (13:55) outside the infancy narrative.
  • Mark's gospel names her only once (6:3) and mentions her as Jesus' mother without naming her in Şablon:Bibleref2-nb.
  • John's gospel refers to her twice but never mentions her by name. Described as Jesus' mother, she makes two appearances in John's gospel. She is first seen at the wedding at Cana of Galilee[Jn 2:1–12] which is mentioned only in the fourth gospel. The second reference in John, also exclusively listed this gospel, has the mother of Jesus standing near the cross of her son together with the (also unnamed) "disciple whom Jesus loved."[Jn 19:25–26] John 2:1–12 is the only text in the canonical gospels in which Mary speaks to (and about) the adult Jesus.
  • In the Book of Acts, Luke's second writing, Mary and the "brothers of Jesus" are mentioned in the company of the eleven who are gathered in the upper" room after the ascension.[Acts 1:14]
  • In the Book of Revelation,Şablon:Bibleref2c-nb John's apocalypse never explicitly identifies the "woman clothed with the sun" as Mary of Nazareth, the mother of Jesus. However, many interpreters have made that connection.[11]

Family and early lifeEdit

The New Testament tells little of Mary's early history. Early non-biblical writings name her parents as Joachim and Anne.[12] However, in the canonical New Testament the gospel of Luke suggests that Mary's father to be Heli the son of Matthat, although many argue that the genealogy is of Joseph's family.[Lk 3:23] In Luke 3:23 the words "as was supposed" are used in the King James translation. The Koine Greek preceding the translation "as was supposed" is νομίζω pronounced nom-id'-zo meaning practice or consider coming from the root word νόμος pronounced nom'-os meaning law.[13] Here Heli is shown as the father-in-law or according to practice of the law of Joseph, the husband of Mary. This is in staunch contrast to Matthew 1:16 which speaks of Joseph's natural father as being Jacob.[14] Mary was a relative of Elizabeth, wife of the priest Zechariah of the priestly division of Abijah, who was herself part of the lineage of Aaron and so of the tribe of Levi.[15]Şablon:Rp [Lk 1:5] Şablon:Bibleref2c-nb In spite of this, some speculate that Mary, like Joseph to whom she was betrothed, was of the House of David and so of the tribe of Judah, and that the genealogy presented in Luke was hers, while Joseph's is given in Matthew.[16] She resided at Nazareth in Galilee, presumably with her parents and during her betrothal–the first stage of a Jewish marriage–the angel Gabriel announced to her that she was to be the mother of the promised Messiah by conceiving him through the Holy Spirit.[17] When Joseph was told of her conception in a dream by "an angel of the Lord", he was surprised; but the angel told him to be unafraid and take her as his wife, which Joseph did, thereby formally completing the wedding rites.[18][Mt 1:18–25]

Since the angel Gabriel had told Mary (according to Luke)Şablon:Bibleref2c-nb that Elizabeth, having previously been barren, was now miraculously pregnant, Mary hurried to visit Elizabeth, who was living with her husband Zechariah in a city of Judah "in the hill country".[Lk 1:39] Once Mary arrived at the house and greeted Elizabeth, Elizabeth proclaimed Mary as "the mother of [her] Lord", and Mary recited a song of thanksgiving commonly known as the Magnificat from its first word in Latin.[Lk 1:46–56] After three months, Mary returned to her house.[Lk 1:56–57] According to the Gospel of Luke, a decree of the Roman emperor Augustus required that Joseph and his betrothed should proceed to Bethlehem for a census. While they were there, Mary gave birth to Jesus; but because there was no place for them in the inn, she had to use a manger as a cradle.[15]Şablon:Rp [Lk 2:1ff] After eight days, the boy was circumcised according to Jewish law. He was named Jesus in accordance with the instructions that the "angel of the Lord" had given to Joseph after the Annunciation to Mary.[Mt 1:21] [Lu 1:31] These customary ceremonies were followed by Jesus' presentation to the Lord at the Temple in Jerusalem in accordance with the law for firstborn males, then the visit of the Magi, the family's flight into Egypt, their return after the death of King Herod the Great about 2 or 1 BC and taking up residence in Nazareth.[19][Mt 2]

Mary in the life of JesusEdit

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Mary is involved in the only event in Jesus' adolescent life that is recorded in the New Testament. At the age of twelve Jesus, having become separated from his parents on their return journey from the Passover celebration in Jerusalem, was found among the teachers in the temple.[20]Şablon:Rp [Lk 2:41–52]

After Jesus' baptism by John the Baptist and his temptations by the devil in the desert, Mary was present when, at her intercession, Jesus worked his first public miracle during the marriage in Cana by turning water into wine.[Jn 2:1–11] Subsequently there are events when Mary is present along with James, Joseph, Simon, and Judas, called Jesus' brothers, and unnamed "sisters". [Mt 1:24–25] Şablon:Bibleref2c-nb Şablon:Bibleref2c-nb Şablon:Bibleref2c-nb [Mk 3:31] Şablon:Bibleref2c-nb Şablon:Bibleref2c-nb Şablon:Bibleref2c-nb [Jn 2:12] Şablon:Bibleref2c-nb [Gal 1:19] [Ac 1:14] These passages have been used to challenge the doctrine of the perpetual virginity of Mary, however both Catholic and Orthodox churches interpret the words commonly translated "brother" and "sister" as actually meaning close relatives (see Perpetual virginity). There is also an incident in which Jesus is sometimes interpreted as rejecting his family. "And his mother and his brothers arrived, and standing outside, they sent in a message asking for him[Mk 3:21] ... And looking at those who sat in a circle around him, Jesus said, 'These are my mother and my brothers. Whoever does the will of God is my brother, and sister, and mother.'"[21]Şablon:Bibleref2c-nb

Mary is also depicted as being present during the crucifixion standing near "the disciple whom Jesus loved" along with Mary of Clopas and Mary Magdalene,[Jn 19:25–26] to which list Matthew 27:56 adds "the mother of the sons of Zebedee", presumably the Salome mentioned in Mark 15:40. This representation is called a Stabat Mater.[22][23] Mary, cradling the dead body of her Son, while not recorded in the Gospel accounts, is a common motif in art, called a "pietà" or "pity".

After the Ascension of JesusEdit

In Acts 1:26, especially v. 14, Mary is the only one to be mentioned by name other than the twelve apostles and the candidates of about 120 people gathered, after the Ascension, in the Upper Room on the occasion of the election of Matthias to the vacancy of Judas. (Though it is said that "the women" and Jesus' brothers were there as well, their names are not given.) Some also consider the "chosen lady" mentioned in 2 John 1:1 as Mary. From this time, she disappears from the biblical accounts, although it is held by Catholics that she is again portrayed as the heavenly woman of Revelation.[Rev 12:1]

Her death is not recorded in scripture. However, Catholic and Orthodox tradition and doctrine have her assumed (taken bodily) into Heaven. Belief in the corporeal assumption of Mary is universal to Catholicism, in both Eastern and Western Catholic Churches, as well as the Eastern Orthodox Church,[24][25] Coptic Churches, and parts of the Anglican Communion and Continuing Anglican Churches.[26]

Later Christian writings and traditionsEdit

According to the apocryphal Gospel of James Mary was the daughter of Saint Joachim and Saint Anne. Before Mary's conception Anna had been barren. Mary was given to service as a consecrated virgin in the Temple in Jerusalem when she was three years old, much like Hannah took Samuel to the Tabernacle as recorded in the Old Testament.[5]

According to Sacred Tradition, Mary died surrounded by the apostles (in either Jerusalem or Ephesus) between three days and 24 years after Christ's ascension. When the apostles later opened her tomb, they found it to be empty and they concluded that she had been assumed into Heaven.[25][27] Mary's Tomb, an empty tomb in Jerusalem, is attributed to Mary.[28] The Roman Catholic Church teaches Mary's assumption, but does not teach that she died, as that would contradict the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception.

The House of the Virgin Mary near Ephesus in Turkey is traditionally considered the place where Mary lived until her assumption. The Gospel of John states that Mary went to live with the Disciple whom Jesus loved,[Jn 19:27] identified as John the Evangelist. Irenaeus and Eusebius of Caesarea wrote in their histories that John later went to Ephesus, which may provide the basis for the early belief that Mary also lived in Ephesus with John.[29][30]

Christian devotionEdit

Şablon:Mariology Christian devotion to Mary goes back to the 2nd century and predates the emergence of a specific Marian liturgical system in the 5th century, following the First Council of Ephesus in 431. The Council itself was held at a church in Ephesus which had been dedicated to Mary about a hundred years before.[31][32][33] In Egypt the veneration of Mary had started in the 3rd century and the term Theotokos was used by Origen, the Alexandrian Father of the Church.[34]

The earliest known Marian prayer (the Sub tuum praesidium, or Beneath Thy Protection) is from the 3rd century (perhaps 270), and its text was rediscovered in 1917 on a papyrus in Egypt.[35][36] Following the Edict of Milan in 313, by the 5th century artistic images of Mary began to appear in public and larger churches were being dedicated to Mary, e.g. S. Maria Maggiore in Rome.[37][38][39]

Over the centuries, devotion and veneration to Mary has varied greatly among Christian traditions. For instance, while Protestants show scant attention to Marian prayers or devotions, of all the saints whom the Orthodox venerate, the most honored is Mary, who is considered "more honorable than the Cherubim and more glorious than the Seraphim."[40]

Orthodox theologian Sergei Bulgakov wrote: "Love and veneration of the Blessed Virgin Mary is the soul of Orthodox piety. A faith in Christ which does not include his mother is another faith, another Christianity from that of the Orthodox church."[41]

Although the Catholics and the Orthodox may honor and venerate Mary, they do not view her as divine, nor do they worship her. Catholics view Mary as subordinate to Christ, but uniquely so, in that she is seen as above all other creatures.[42] Similarly Theologian Sergei Bulgakov wrote that although the Orthodox view Mary as "superior to all created beings" and "ceaslessly pray for her intercession" she is not considered a "substitute for the One Mediator" who is Christ.[41] "Let Mary be in honor, but let worship be given to the Lord" he wrote.[43] Similarly, Catholics do not worship Mary, but venerate her. Catholics use the term hyperdulia for Marian veneration rather than latria that applies to God and dulia for other saints.[44] The definition of the three level hierarchy of latria, hyperdulia and dulia goes back to the Second Council of Nicaea in 787.[45]

Devotions to artistic depictions of Mary vary among Christian traditions. There is a long tradition of Roman Catholic Marian art and no image permeates Catholic art as the image of Madonna and Child.[46] The icon of the Virgin is without doubt the most venerated icon among the Orthodox.[47] Both Roman Catholics and the Orthodox venerate images and icons of Mary, given that the Second Council of Nicaea in 787 permitted their veneration by Catholics with the understanding that those who venerate the image are venerating the reality of the person it represents,[48] and the 842 Synod of Constantinople established the same for the Orthodox.[49] The Orthodox, however, only pray to and venerate flat, two-dimensional icons and not three-dimensional statues.[50]

The Anglican position towards Mary is in general more conciliatory than that of Protestants at large and in a book he wrote about praying with the icons of Mary, Rowan Williams, the Archbishop of Canterbury said: "It is not only that we cannot understand Mary without seeing her as pointing to Christ; we cannot understand Christ without seeing his attention to Mary".[51][52]

TitlesEdit

Ana madde: Titles of Mary
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Titles to honor Mary or ask for her intercession are used by some Christian traditions such as the Eastern Orthodox or Catholics, but not others, e.g. the Protestants. Common titles for Mary include Mother of God (Theotokos), The Blessed Virgin Mary (also abbreviated to "BVM"), Our Lady (Notre Dame, Nuestra Señora, Nossa Senhora, Madonna) and the Queen of Heaven (Regina Caeli).[53][54]

Mary is referred to by the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Anglican Church, and all Eastern Catholic Churches as Theotokos, a title recognized at the Third Ecumenical Council (held at Ephesus to address the teachings of Nestorius, in 431). Theotokos (and its Latin equivalents, "Deipara" and "Dei genetrix") literally means "Godbearer". The equivalent phrase "Mater Dei", (Mother of God) is more common in Latin and so also in the other languages used in the Western Catholic Church, but this same phrase in Greek (Μήτηρ Θεοῦ), in the abbreviated form of the first and last letter of the two words (ΜΡ ΘΥ), is the indication attached to her image in Byzantine icons. The Council stated that the Church Fathers "did not hesitate to speak of the holy Virgin as the Mother of God".[55][56][57]

Some titles have a Biblical basis, for instance the title Queen Mother has been given to Mary since she was the mother of Jesus, who was sometimes referred to as the "King of Kings" due to his lineage of King David. The biblical basis for the term Queen can be seen in the Gospel of Luke 1:32 and the Book of Isaiah 9:6, and Queen Mother from 1 Kings 2:19–20 and Jeremiah 13:18–19.[58] Other titles have arisen from reported miracles, special appeals or occasions for calling on Mary, e.g. Our Lady of Good Counsel, Our Lady of Navigators or Our Lady of Ransom who protects captives.[59][60][61][62]

The three main titles for Mary used by the Orthodox are Theotokos, i.e., Mother of God (Greek Θεοτόκος), Aeiparthenos, i.e. Ever Virgin (Greek ἀειπάρθενος), as confirmed in the Fifth Ecumenical Council 553, and Panagia, i.e., All Holy (Greek Παναγία).[40] A large number of titles for Mary are used by Roman Catholics, and these titles have in turn given rise to many artistic depictions, e.g. the title Our Lady of Sorrows has resulted in masterpieces such as Michelangelo's Pietà.[63]

Marian feastsEdit

Main article: Marian feast days (includes lists of feast days)
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The earliest feasts that relate to Mary grew out of the cycle of feasts that celebrated the Nativity of Jesus. Given that according to the Gospel of Luke (Şablon:Bibleref), forty days after the birth of Jesus, along with the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple Mary was purified according to Jewish customs, the Feast of the Purification began to be celebrated by the 5th century, and became the "Feast of Simeon" in Byzantium.[64]

In the 7th and 8th centuries four more Marian feasts were established in the Eastern Church. In the Western Church a feast dedicated to Mary, just before Christmas was celebrated in the Churches of Milan and Ravenna in Italy in the 7th century. The four Roman Marian feasts of Purification, Annunciation, Assumption and Nativity of Mary were gradually and sporadically introduced into England by the 11th century.[64]

Over time, the number and nature of feasts (and the associated Titles of Mary) and the venerative practices that accompany them have varied a great deal among diverse Christian traditions. Overall, there are significantly more titles, feasts and venerative Marian practices among Roman Catholics than any other Christians traditions.[63] Some such feasts relate to specific events, e.g. the Feast of Our Lady of Victory was based on the 1571 victory of the Papal States in the Battle of Lepanto.[65][66]

Differences in feasts may also originate from doctrinal issues – the Feast of the Assumption is such an example. Given that there is no agreement among all Christians on the circumstances of the death, Dormition or Assumption of Mary, the feast of assumption is celebrated among some denominations and not others. [54][67] While the Catholic Church celebrates the Feast of the Assumption on August 15, some Eastern Catholics celebrate it as Dormition of the Theotokos, and may do so on August 28, if they follow the Julian calendar. The Eastern Orthodox also celebrate it as the Dormition of the Theotokos, one of their 12 Great Feasts. Protestants do not celebrate this, or any other Marian feasts.[54]

Christian doctrinesEdit

There is significant diversity in the Marian doctrines accepted by various Christian churches. The key Marian doctrines held in Christianity can be briefly outlined as follows:

The acceptance of these Marian doctrines by Christians can be summarized as follows:[68][69][70][71][72]

Doctrine Church action Accepted by
Mother of God First Council of Ephesus, 431 Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Anglicans, Lutherans, Methodists,
Latter Day Saints (as Mother of Son of God)
Virgin birth of Jesus First Council of Nicaea, 325 Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Anglicans, Lutherans,
Protestants, Latter Day Saints
Assumption of Mary Munificentissimus Deus encyclical
Pope Pius XII, 1950
Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, some Anglicans, some Lutherans
Immaculate Conception Ineffabilis Deus encyclical
Pope Pius IX, 1854
Roman Catholics, some Anglicans, somr Lutherans, early Martin Luther
Perpetual Virginity Council of Constantinople, 533
Smalcald Articles, 1537
Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Some Anglicans, Some Lutherans,
Martin Luther, John Calvin, John Wesley

The title "Mother of God" (Theotokos) for Mary was confirmed by the First Council of Ephesus, held at the Church of Mary in 431. The Council decreed that Mary is the Mother of God because her son Jesus is one person who is both God and man, divine and human.[55] This doctrine is widely accepted by Christians in general, and the term Mother of God had already been used within the oldest known prayer to Mary, the Sub tuum praesidium which dates to around 250 AD.[73]

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The Virgin birth of Jesus has been a universally held belief among Christians since the second century,[74] It is included in the two most widely used Christian creeds, which state that Jesus "was incarnate of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary" (the Nicene Creed in what is now its familiar form)[75] and the Apostles' Creed. The Gospel of Matthew describes Mary as a virgin who fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah 7:14. The authors of the Gospels of Matthew and Luke consider Jesus' conception not the result of intercourse and assert that Mary had "no relations with man" before Jesus' birth.[Mt 1:18] [Mt 1:25] [Lk 1:34] This alludes to the belief that Mary conceived Jesus through the action of God the Holy Spirit, and not through intercourse with Joseph or anyone else.[76]

The doctrines of the Assumption or Dormition of Mary relate to her death and bodily assumption to Heaven. While the Roman Catholic Church has established the dogma of the Assumption, namely that the Mary directly went to Heaven without a usual physical death, the Eastern Orthodox Church believes in the Dormition, i.e. that she fell asleep, surrounded by the Apostles.[77][78]

Roman Catholics believe in the Immaculate Conception of Mary, as proclaimed Ex Cathedra by Pope Pius IX in 1854, namely that she was filled with grace from the very moment of her conception in her mother's womb and preserved from the stain of original sin. The Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church has a liturgical feast by that name, kept on 8 December.[79] The Eastern Orthodox reject the Immaculate Conception principally because their understanding of ancestral sin (the Greek term corresponding to the Latin "original sin") differs from that of the Roman Catholic Church, but also on the basis that without original sin.[80]

The Perpetual Virginity of Mary, asserts Mary's real and perpetual virginity even in the act of giving birth to the Son of God made Man. The term Ever-Virgin (Greek Şablon:Polytonic) is applied in this case, stating that Mary remained a virgin for the remainder of her life, making Jesus her biological and only son, whose conception and birth are held to be miraculous.[76][77][81]

Perspectives on MaryEdit

Christian perspectives on MaryEdit

Christian Marian perspectves include a great deal of diversity. While some Christians such as Roman Catholics and Eastern Orthodox have well established Marian traditions, Protestants at large pay scant attention to Mariological themes. Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, and some Lutherans venerate the Virgin Mary. This veneration especially takes the form of prayer for intercession with her Son, Jesus Christ. Additionally it includes composing poems and songs in Mary's honor, painting icons or carving statues of her, and conferring titles on Mary that reflect her position among the saints.[40][52][54][63]

Anglican viewEdit

The multiple churches that form the Anglican Communion and the Continuing Anglican movement have different views on Marian doctrines and venerative practices given that there is no single church with universal authority within the Communion and that the mother church (the Church of England) understands itself to be both Catholic and Reformed.[82] Thus unlike the Protestant churches at large, the Anglican Communion (which includes the Episcopal Church in the United States) includes segments which still retain some veneration of Mary.[52]

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Mary's special position within God's purpose of salvation as "God bearer" (Theotokos) is recognised in a number of ways by some Anglican Christians.[83] The Church affirms in the historic creeds that Jesus was born of the Virgin Mary, and celebrates the feast days of the Presentation of Christ in the Temple. This feast is called in older prayer books the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary on 2 February. The Annunciation of our Lord to the Blessed Virgin on March 25 was from before the time of Bede until the 18th century New Year's Day in England. The Annunciation is called the "Annunciation of our Lady" in the 1662 Book of Common Prayer. Anglicans also celebrate in the Visitation of the Blessed Virgin on May 31, though in some provinces the traditional date of July 2 is kept. The feast of the St. Mary the Virgin is observed on the traditional day of the Assumption, August 15. The Nativity of the Blessed Virgin is kept on September 8.[52]

The Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary is kept in the 1662 Book of Common Prayer, on December 8. In certain Anglo-Catholic parishes this feast is called the Immaculate Conception. Again, the Assumption of Mary is believed in by most Anglo-Catholics, but is considered a pious opinion by moderate Anglicans. Protestant minded Anglicans reject the celebration of these feasts.[52]

Prayers and venerative practices vary a great deal. For instance, as of the 19th century, following the Oxford Movement, Anglo-Catholics frequently pray the Rosary, the Angelus, Regina Caeli, and other litanies and anthems of Our Lady that are reminiscent of Catholic practices.[84] On the other hand, Low Church Anglicans rarely invoke the Blessed Virgin except in certain hymns, such as the second stanza of Ye Watchers and Ye Holy Ones.[83][85]

The Anglican Society of Mary was formed in 1931 and maintains chapters in many countries. The purpose of the society is to foster devotion to Mary among Anglicans.[52][86] The High church espouses doctrines that are closer to Roman Catholics, and retains veneration for Mary, e.g. official Anglican pilgrimages to Our Lady of Lourdes have taken place since 1963, and pilgrimages to Our Lady of Walsingham have gone on for hundreds of years.[87]

Historically, there has been enough common ground between Roman Catholics and Anglicans on Marian issues that in 2005 a joint statement called Mary: grace and hope in Christ was produced through ecumenical meetings of Anglicans and Roman Catholic theologians. This document, informally known as the "Seattle Statement", is not formally endorsed by either the Catholic Church or the Anglican Communion, but is viewed by its authors as the beginning of a joint understanding of Mary.[52][88]

Catholic viewEdit

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In the Catholic Church, Mary is accorded the title "Blessed," (from Latin beatus, blessed, via Greek μακάριος, makarios and Latin facere, make) in recognition of her ascension to Heaven and her capacity to intercede on behalf of those who pray to her. Catholic teachings make clear that Mary is not considered divine and prayers to her are not answered by her, they are answered by God.[90] The five Catholic doctrines regarding Mary are: Mother of God, Virgin birth of Jesus, Perpetual virginity of Mary, Immaculate Conception (of Mary) and Assumption of Mary.[77][91][92]

The Blessed Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus has a more central role in Roman Catholic teachings and beliefs than in any other major Christian group. Not only do Roman Catholics have more theological doctrines and teachings that relate to Mary, but they have more festivals, prayers, devotional, and venerative practices than any other group.[63] The Catholic Catechism states: "The Church's devotion to the Blessed Virgin is intrinsic to Christian worship."[93]

For centuries, Roman Catholics have performed acts of consecration and entrustment to Mary at personal, societal and regional levels. These acts may be directed to the Virgin herself, to the Immaculate Heart of Mary and to the Immaculata. In Catholic teachings, consecration to Mary does not diminish or substitute the love of God, but enhances it, for all consecration is ultimately made to God.[94][95]

Following the growth of Marian devotions in the 16th century, Catholic saints wrote books such as Glories of Mary and True Devotion to Mary that emphasized Marian veneration and taught that "the path to Jesus is through Mary".[96] Marian devotions are at times linked to Christocentric devotions, e.g. the Alliance of the Hearts of Jesus and Mary.[97]

Key Marian devotions include: Seven Sorrows of Mary, Rosary and scapular, Miraculous Medal and Reparations to Mary.[98][99] The months of May and October are traditionally "Marian months" for Roman Catholics, e.g. the daily Rosary is encouraged in October and in May Marian devotions take place in many regions.[100][101][102] Popes have issued a number of Marian encyclicals and Apostolic Letters to encourage devotions to and the veneration of the Virgin Mary.

Catholics place high emphasis on Mary's roles as protector and intercessor and the Catholic Catechism refers to Mary as the "Mother of God to whose protection the faithful fly in all their dangers and needs".[103][104][105][106][107] Key Marian prayers include: Hail Mary, Alma Redemptoris Mater, Sub Tuum Praesidum, Ave Maris Stella, Regina Coeli, Ave Regina Coelorum and the Magnificat.[108]

Mary's participation in the processes of salvation and redemption has also been emphasized in the Catholic tradition, but they are not doctrines.[109][110][111][112] Pope John Paul II's 1987 encyclical Redemptoris Mater began with the sentence: "The Mother of the Redeemer has a precise place in the plan of salvation."[113]

In the 20th century both popes John Paul II and Benedict XVI have emphasized the Marian focus of the church. Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (later Pope Benedict XVI) wrote:

It is necessary to go back to Mary if we want to return to that "truth about Jesus Christ," "truth about the Church" and "truth about man".[114]

when he suggested a redirection of the whole Church towards the program of Pope John Paul II in order to ensure an authentic approach to Christology via a return to the "whole truth about Mary".[114]

Orthodox viewEdit

Ana madde: Theotokos
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Orthodox Christianity includes a large number of traditions regarding the Ever Virgin Mary, the Theotokos.[115] The Orthodox believe that she was and remained a virgin before and after Christ's birth.[40]

The views of the Church Fathers still play an important role in the shaping of Orthodox Marian perspective. However, the Orthodox views on Mary are mostly doxological, rather than academic: they are expressed in hymns, praise, liturgical poetry and the veneration of icons. One of the most loved Orthodox Akathists (i.e. hymns) is devoted to Mary and it is often simply called the Akathist Hymn.[116] Five of the twelve Great Feasts in Orthodoxy are dedicated to Mary.[40] The Sunday of Orthodoxy directly links the Virgin Mary's identity as Mother of God with icon veneration.[117]

The Orthodox view Mary as "superior to all created beings", although not divine.[41] The Orthodox venerate Mary as conceived immaculate and assumed into heaven, but they do not accept the Roman Catholic dogmas on these doctrines.[118] The Orthodox celebrate the Dormition of the Theotokos, rather than Assumption.[40]

The apocryphal Protoevangelium of James, which is not part of Scripture, has been the source of many Orthodox beliefs on Mary. The account of Mary's life presented includes her consecration as a virgin at the temple at age three. The High Priest Zachariah blessed Mary and informed her that God had magnified her name among many generations. Zachariah placed Mary on the third step of the altar, whereby God gave her grace. While in the temple, Mary was miraculously fed by an angel, until she was twelve years old. At that point an angel told Zachariah to betroth Mary to a widower in Israel, who would be indicated. This story provides the theme of many hymns for the Feast of Presentation of Mary, and icons of the feast depict the story.[27] The Orthodox believe that Mary was instrumental in the growth of Christianity during the life of Jesus, and after his Crucifixion, and Orthodox Theologian Sergei Bulgakov wrote: "The Virgin Mary is the center, invisible, but real, of the Apostolic Church"

Theologians from the Orthodox tradition have made prominent contributions to the development of Marian thought and devotion. John Damascene (c 650─c 750) was one of the greatest Orthodox theologians. Among other Marian writings, he proclaimed the essential nature of Mary's heavenly Assumption or Dormition and her mediative role.

It was necessary that the body of the one who preserved her virginity intact in giving birth should also be kept incorrupt after death. It was necessary that she, who carried the Creator in her womb when he was a baby, should dwell among the tabernacles of heaven.[119]

From her we have harvested the grape of life; from her we have cultivated the seed of immortality. For our sake she became Mediatrix of all blessings; in her God became man, and man became God.[120]

More recently, Sergei Bulgakov expressed the Orthodox sentiments towards Mary as follows:[41]

Mary is not merely the instrument, but the direct positive condition of the Incarnation, its human aspect. Christ could not have been incarnate by some mechanical process, violating human nature. It was necessary for that nature itself to say for itself, by the mouth of the most pure human being: "Behold the handmaid of the Lord, be it unto me according to Thy word."

Protestant viewEdit

Protestants in general reject the veneration and invocation of the Saints.[69]Şablon:Rp Protestants typically hold that Mary was the mother of Jesus, but was an ordinary woman devoted to God. Therefore, there is virtually no Marian veneration, Marian feasts, Marian pilgrimages, Marian art, Marian music or Marian spirituality in today's Protestant communities. Within these views, Roman Catholic beliefs and practices are at times rejected, e.g., theologian Karl Barth wrote that "the heresy of the Catholic Church is its Mariology".[121]

Some early Protestants venerated and honored Mary. Martin Luther wrote that: "Mary is full of grace, proclaimed to be entirely without sin. God's grace fills her with everything good and makes her devoid of all evil".[122] However, as of 1532 Luther stopped celebrating the feast of the Assumption of Mary and also discontinued his support of the Immaculate Conception.[123]

John Calvin said, "It cannot be denied that God in choosing and destining Mary to be the Mother of his Son, granted her the highest honor."[124] However, Calvin firmly rejected the notion that anyone but Christ can intercede for man.[125]

Although Calvin and Huldrych Zwingli honored Mary as the Mother of God in the 16th century, they did so less than Martin Luther.[126] Thus the idea of respect and high honor for Mary was not rejected by the first Protestants; but, they came to criticize the Roman Catholics for venerating Mary. Following the Council of Trent in the 16th century, as Marian veneration became associated with Catholics, Protestant interest in Mary decreased.[69] During the Age of the Enlightenment and residual interest in Mary within Protestant churches almost disappeared, although Anglicans and Lutherans continued to honor her.[69]

Protestants acknowledge that Mary is "blessed among women"[Luke 1:42] but they do not agree that Mary is to be venerated. She is considered to be an outstanding example of a life dedicated to God.[127]

In the 20th century, Protestants reacted in opposition to the Catholic dogma of the Assumption of Mary. The conservative tone of the Second Vatican Council began to mend the ecumenical differences, and Protestants began to show interest in Marian themes. In 1997 and 1998 ecumenical dialogs between Catholics and Protestants took place, but to date the majority of Protestants pay scant attention to Marian issues and often view them as a challenge to the authority of Scripture.[69]

Lutheran viewEdit

Despite Martin Luther's harsh polemics against his Roman Catholic opponents over issues concerning Mary and the saints, theologians appear to agree that Luther adhered to the Marian decrees of the ecumenical councils and dogmas of the church. He held fast to the belief that Mary was a perpetual virgin and the Theotokos or Mother of God.[128][129] Special attention is given to the assertion, that Luther some three-hundred years before the dogmatization of the Immaculate Conception by Pope Pius IX in 1854, was a firm adherent of that view. Others maintain that Luther in later years changed his position on the Immaculate Conception, which, at that time was undefined in the Church, maintaining however the sinlessness of Mary throughout her life.[130][131] For Luther, early in his life, the Assumption of Mary was an understood fact, although he later stated that the Bible did not say anything about it and stopped celebrating its feast. Important to him was the belief that Mary and the saints do live on after death.[132][133][134]"Throughout his career as a priest-professor-reformer, Luther preached, taught, and argued about the veneration of Mary with a verbosity that ranged from childlike piety to sophisticated polemics. His views are intimately linked to his Christocentric theology and its consequences for liturgy and piety."[135] Luther, while revering Mary, came to criticize the "Papists" for blurring the line, between high admiration of the grace of God wherever it is seen in a human being, and religious service given to another creature. He considered the Roman Catholic practice of celebrating saints' days and making intercessory requests addressed especially to Mary and other departed saints to be idolatry.[136] However, certain Lutheran churches such as the Anglo-Lutheran Catholic Church venerate Mary and the saints in the same manner that Roman Catholics do, and hold all Marian dogmas as part of their faith.[137]

Methodist viewEdit

The United Methodist Church, as well as other Methodist churches, have no official writings or teachings on the Virgin Mary except what is mentioned in Scripture and the Ecumenical Creeds, mainly that Christ was conceived in her womb through the Holy Spirit and that she gave birth to Christ as a virgin. John Wesley, the founder of the Methodist Movement within the Church of England, which later lead to the Methodist Church, believed that the Virgin Mary was a perpetual virgin, meaning she never had sex.[138][139] Many Methodists reject this concept, but some Methodists believe it. The church does hold that Mary was a virgin before, during, and immediately after the birth of Christ.[140][141]

John Wesley stated in a letter that:

"The Blessed Virgin Mary, who, as well after as when she brought him forth, continued a pure and unspotted virgin."[139]

Article II of the Articles of Religion of the Methodist Church states that:

The Son, who is the Word of the Father, the very and eternal God, of one substance with the Father, took man's nature in the womb of the blessed Virgin; so that two whole and perfect natures, that is to say, the Godhead and Manhood, were joined together in one person, never to be divided; whereof is one Christ, very God and very Man, who truly suffered, was crucified, dead, and buried, to reconcile his Father to us, and to be a sacrifice, not only for original guilt, but also for actual sins of men.[142]

From this, the Virgin Mary is believed to be the Theotokos, or Mother of God, in the Methodist Church, although the term is usually only used by those of High Church and Evangelical Catholic tradition.

Article II of The Confession of Faith from The Book of Discipline states:

“We believe in Jesus Christ, truly God and truly man, in whom the divine and human natures are perfectly and inseparably united. He is the eternal Word made flesh, the only begotten Son of the Father, born of the Virgin Mary by the power of the Holy Spirit. As ministering servant he lived, suffered and died on the cross. He was buried, rose from the dead and ascended into heaven to be with the Father, from whence he shall return. He is eternal Savior and Mediator, who intercedes for us, and by him all persons are to be judged.”

From this statement, Methodists reject the Catholic ideas of Mary as a Co-Redemptrix and Mediatrix of the Faith. The Methodist Churches disagree with veneration of saints, of Mary, and of relics; believing that reverence and praise are for God alone. However, the study of Mary's life as well as saint's biographies is deemed appropriate, as they are seen as heroes and examples of good Christians.[143] The Methodist churches reject the doctrines of the Immaculate Conception and the Assumption of Mary, stating that Christ was the only person to live a sinless life and to ascend body and soul into Heaven.[144]

Latter Day Saint viewEdit

Latter Day Saints affirm the virgin birth[145] but reject the traditions of the Immaculate Conception, Mary's perpetual virginity, and her assumption.[146] The Book of Mormon, part of the Latter Day Saint canon of scripture, refers to Mary by name in prophecies of her mission,[147] and describes her as "most beautiful and fair above all other virgins,"[148] and as a "precious and chosen vessel."[149]

In the first edition of the Book of Mormon (1830), Mary was referred to as "the mother of God, after the manner of the flesh,"[150] a reading that was changed to "the mother of the Son of God" in all subsequent editions (1837–).[151]

Latter Day Saints also believe that God the Father, not the Holy Spirit, is the literal father of Jesus Christ,[152] although how Jesus' conception was accomplished has not been authoritatively established.

Nontrinitarian viewEdit

Nontrinitarians, such as Jehovah's Witnesses, Christadelphians, consider Mary as the mother of Jesus Christ. Because they do not consider Jesus as God, they do not consider Mary as the Mother of God or the Theotokos.[153] They believe that the Christians should pray only to God the Father, not to Mary.[154]

Islamic perspectiveEdit

Mary, the mother of Jesus, is mentioned as Maryam, more in the Qur'an than in the entire New Testament.[155][156] She enjoys a singularly distinguished and honored position among women in the Qur'an. A chapter in the Qur'an is titled "Maryam" (Mary), which is the only chapter in the Qur'an named after a woman, in which the story of Mary (Maryam) and Jesus(Isa) is recounted according to the Islamic view of Jesus.[157]

Dosya:Turkey.Konya035.jpg

Mary is mentioned in the Qur'an with the honorific title of "our lady" (syyidatuna) as the daughter of Imran and Hannah.[158]

She is the only woman directly named in the Qur'an; declared (uniquely along with Jesus) to be a Sign of God to mankind [Qur'an 23:50]; as one who "guarded her chastity" [Qur'an 66:12]; an obedient one [Qur'an 66:12]; chosen of her mother and dedicated to God whilst still in the womb [Qur'an 3:36]; uniquely (amongst women) Accepted into service by Allah [Qur'an 3:37]; cared for by (one of the prophets as per Islam) Zakariya (Zacharias) [Qur'an 3:37]; that in her childhood she resided in the Temple and uniquely had access to Al-Mihrab (understood to be the Holy of Holies), and was provided with heavenly 'provisions' by God [Qur'an 3:37].[158]

Mary is also called a Chosen One [Qur'an 3:42]; a Purified One [Qur'an 3:42]; a Truthful one [Qur'an 5:75]; her child conceived through "a Word from God" [Qur'an 3:45]; and "exalted above all women of The Worlds/Universes" [Qur'an 3:42].

The Qur'an relates detailed narrative accounts of Maryam (Mary) in two places Sura 3Şablon:Quran-usc-range and Sura 19Şablon:Quran-usc-range. These state beliefs in both the Immaculate Conception of Mary and the Virgin birth of Jesus.[159][160] [161] The account given in Sura 19 [Qur'an 19:1] of the Qur'an is nearly identical with that in the Gospel according to Luke, and both of these (Luke, Sura 19) begin with an account of the visitation of an angel upon Zakariya (Zecharias) and Good News of the birth of Yahya (John), followed by the account of the annunciation. It mentions how Mary was informed by an angel that she would become the mother of Jesus through the actions of God alone.[162]

In the Islamic tradition, Mary and Jesus were the only children who could not be touched by Satan at the moment of their birth, for God imposed a veil between them and Satan.[163] According to author Shabbir Akhtar, the Islamic perspective on Mary's Immaculate Conception is compatible with the Catholic doctrine of the same topic.[164][165]

The Qur'an says that Jesus was the result of a virgin birth. The most detailed account of the annunciation and birth of Jesus is provided in Sura 3 and 19 of The Qur'an wherein it is written that God sent an angel to announce that she could shortly expect to bear a son, despite being a virgin.[166]

Other viewsEdit

From the early stages of Christianity, belief in the virginity of Mary and the virgin conception of Jesus, as stated in the gospels, holy and supernatural, was used by detractors, both political and religious, as a topic for discussions, debates and writings, specifically aimed to challenge the divinity of Jesus and thus Christians and Christianity alike.[167] In the second century, as part of the earliest anti-Christian polemics, Celsus suggested that Jesus was the illegitimate son of a Roman soldier named Panthera.[168] The views of Celsus drew responses from Origen, the Church Father in Alexandria, Egypt.[169]

To date, scholars continue to debate the accounts of the birth of Jesus from several perspectives, including textual analysis, historical records and post-apostolic witnesses.[170] Bart D. Ehrman has suggested that the historical method can never comment on the likelihood of supernatural occurrences.[171]

Cinematic portrayalsEdit

Mary has been portrayed in various films, including:

Image galleryEdit

See also: Life of the Virgin
For a larger gallery, please see: Marian image gallery

MusicEdit

See alsoEdit

Şablon:Wikipedia-Books Şablon:Mary


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  150. The Book of Mormon (Palmyra, NY: E.B. Grandin, 1830), 25.
  151. 1 Nephi 11:18. Latter Day Saint author Hugh Nibley has argued that the change was made to "avoid confusion, since during the theological controversies of the early Middle Ages the expression "mother of God" took on a special connotation which it still has for many Christians"; Since Cumorah, 2nd ed. (Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book and FARMS, 1988), 6.
  152. Gospel Principles (Salt Lake City, UT: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 2009), 52–53.
  153. Myth 5: Mary Is the Mother of God
  154. Should You Pray to the Virgin Mary?
  155. "Mary and Angels". Readingislam.com. 2002-09-01. http://www.readingislam.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1123996015504&pagename=IslamOnline-English-AAbout_Islam/AskAboutIslamE/AskAboutIslamE. Retrieved 2010-03-02. 
  156. Alaharasan, V. Antony John.Home of the Assumption: Reconstructing Mary's Life in Ephesus. 2006 ISBN 1929039387 page 66
  157. Jestice, Phyllis G. Holy people of the world: a cross-cultural encyclopedia, Volume 3. 2004 ISBN 1576073556 page 558 [7]
  158. 158,0 158,1 The new encyclopedia of Islam by Cyril Glassé, Huston Smith 2003 ISBN 0759101906 page 296 [8]
  159. Jomier, Jacques. The Bible and the Qur'an. 2002 ISBN 0898709288 page 133
  160. Nazir-Ali, Michael. Islam, a Christian perspective. 1984 ISBN 0664245277 page 110
  161. EWTN
  162. Jackson, Montell. Islam Revealed. 2003 ISBN 1591608694 page 73
  163. Rodwell, J. M. The Koran. 2009 ISBN 0559131275 page 505
  164. Akhtar, Shabbir.The Quran and the secular mind: a philosophy of Islam. 2007 page 352
  165. Glassé, Cyril, Huston Smith. The new encyclopedia of Islam. 2003 ISBN 0759101906 page 240
  166. Sarker, Abraham.Understand My Muslim People. 2004 ISBN 1594980020 page 260 [9]
  167. Bennett, Clinton, In search of Jesus 2001 ISBN 0826449166 pages 165–170
  168. Also see: Schaberg, Jane. Illegitimacy of Jesus: A Feminist Theological Interpretation of the Infancy Narratives (Biblical Seminar Series, No 28), ISBN 1-85075-533-7.
  169. Patrick, John The Apology of Origen in Reply to Celsus 2009 ISBN 111013388X pages 22–24
  170. Bromiley, Geoffrey W. The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: Q-Z 1995 ISBN 0802837840 pages 990–991
  171. Ehrman, Bart; William Lane Craig (March 28, 2006). "William Lane Craig and Bart Ehrman "Is There Historical Evidence for the Resurrection of Jesus?"". College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, Massachusetts: bringyou.to. http://www.bringyou.to/apologetics/p96.htm. Retrieved August 11, 2010. "Historians can only establish what probably happened in the past, and by definition a miracle is the least probable occurrence. And so, by the very nature of the canons of historical research, we can't claim historically that a miracle probably happened. By definition, it probably didn't. And history can only establish what probably did." 
  172. http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2007/aug/18/religion.news featured in ITV documentary
  173. "The Muslim Jesus, ITV─Unreality Primetime". Primetime.unrealitytv.co.uk. 2007-08-18. http://primetime.unrealitytv.co.uk/the-muslim-jesus-itv/. Retrieved 2010-03-02. 

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit

Wikimedia Commons'ta
İsa'ya ile ilgili çoklu ortam belgeleri bulunur.

Şablon:Virgin Mary Şablon:New Testament people Şablon:Christmas



ar:مريم العذراء arc:ܡܪܬܝ ܡܪܝܡ az:Məryəm be:Марыя be-x-old:Багародзіца bar:D Jungfrau bo:མིར་ཡམ ། br:Mari, mamm Jezuz bg:Богородица ca:Maria, mare de Jesús ceb:María (inahan ni Jesús) cs:Maria (matka Ježíšova) cy:Y Forwyn Fair da:Jomfru Maria de:Maria (Mutter Jesu) et:Maarja el:Παναγία eml:Maria (mèr ad Gesü) es:María (madre de Jesús) eo:Sankta Maria eu:Maria fa:مریم fr:Marie (mère de Jésus) ga:Muire gd:Moire gl:Virxe María ko:마리아 (예수의 어머니) hi:मरियम (ईसा मसीह की माँ) hsb:Knježna Marija hr:Sveta Marija io:Madono id:Maria ia:Maria (matre de Jesus) is:María mey it:Maria (madre di Gesù) he:מרים, אם ישו jv:Maria kn:ಸಂತ ಮೇರಿ ka:მარიამ ღვთისმშობელი kw:Maria Wynn sw:Bikira Maria ku:Meryem la:Maria (mater Iesu) lv:Jaunava Marija lt:Marija (Jėzaus motina) li:Maria ln:Maria ya Nazaleti lmo:Maria, mader de Gesü hu:Szűz Mária mk:Богородица Марија ml:പരിശുദ്ധ മറിയം arz:العدرا مريم ms:Maryam nah:María Ichpōchtli nl:Maria (moeder van Jezus) ja:イエスの母マリア no:Jomfru Maria nn:Jomfru Maria nrm:Sainte Mathie pa:ਕੁਆਰੀ ਮਰਯਮ pnb:مریم pl:Maria z Nazaretu pt:Maria (mãe de Jesus) ro:Fecioara Maria qu:Qullana Mariya ru:Богородица sq:Shën Maria si:මරියා (ජේසුස් තුමාගේ මව) simple:Mary (mother of Jesus) sk:Panna Mária sl:Sveta Marija sr:Марија (мајка Исусова) fi:Neitsyt Maria sv:Jungfru Maria ta:மரியாள் (இயேசுவின் தாய்) te:మరియమ్ th:พระแม่มารี tr:Meryem (İsa'nın annesi) uk:Діва Марія ur:مریم علیہا السلام vec:Maria (mare de Gesù) vi:Maria wa:Mareye (mame da Djezus) vls:Maria (moedre van Jezus) yo:Màríà (ìyá Jésù) zh:聖母瑪利亞


Wict - MARYEdit

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Şablon:Also

EnglishEdit

EtymologyEdit

[[w:Şablon:La language|Şablon:La]][[Category:Şablon:La derivations|İsa'ya]] [[Maria#Şablon:La|Maria]], from [[w:Şablon:Grc language|Şablon:Grc]][[Category:Şablon:Grc derivations|İsa'ya]] Şablon:Polytonic (Maria), Şablon:Polytonic (Mariam), possibly from Aramaic מרים (Maryām), bitter, from a root מר (MR) meaning "to be bitter". The name corresponds to the Hebrew מרים (Miryām), Old Testament Miriam. The meaning is much debated. Some argue it means mutiny / rebellion / disobedience from the Hebrew root מרי.

PronunciationEdit

Proper nounEdit

Şablon:En-proper noun

  1. Şablon:Given name.
    • 1821 Lord Byron, Don Juan: Canto the Fifth: IV:
      I have a passion for the name of Mary, / For once it was a magic sound to me: / And still it half calls up the realm of fairy / Where I beheld what never was to be.
    • 1830 Mary Russell Mitford, Our Village: Cottage Names:
      Mary, which is as common as a white violet, and like that has something indestructibly sweet and simple, and fit for all wear, high or low, suits the cottage or the palace, the garden or the field, the pretty and the ugly, the old and the young;
    • 1905 George M.Cohan, Forty-Five Minutes from Broadway, Mary is a Grand Old Name ( a song)
      For it was Mary; Mary / Plain as any name can be / But with propriety, society / Will say "Marie". / But it was Mary; Mary / Long before the fashions came / And there's something there that sounds so square / It's a grand old name.
  2. The Virgin Mary, the mother of Christ.
    • Şablon:RQ:Authorized Version:
      Now the birth of Jesus Christ was on this wise: When as his mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with child of the Holy Ghost.
  3. Şablon:Biblical character Any of several other women in the New Testament, notably Mary Magdalene and Mary of Bethany, the sister of Martha.
    • Şablon:RQ:Authorized Version:
      Martha, Martha, thou art careful and troubled about many things: But one thing is needful: and Mary hath chosen that good part, which shall not be taken away from her.

Usage notesEdit

  • The given name was considered too sacred to use before the end of the 12th century. It was very popular from the 17th to the 20th century.

Derived termsEdit

Related termsEdit

Şablon:Rel-top

Şablon:Rel-mid

Şablon:Rel-bottom

TranslationsEdit

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AnagramsEdit


DanishEdit

Proper nounEdit

Mary

  1. Şablon:Given name borrowed from English.

NorwegianEdit

Proper nounEdit

Mary

  1. Şablon:Given name borrowed from English.

SwedishEdit

Proper nounEdit

Mary

  1. Şablon:Given name borrowed from English.

de:Mary el:Mary es:Mary fr:Mary id:Mary is:Mary li:Mary hu:Mary no:Mary pl:Mary ru:Mary simple:Mary sr:Mary fi:Mary sv:Mary zh:Mary

VSEdit

Edit

Lupa Kız adı Edit

Ico libri Anlamlar

[1]Acı ,sert
[2]Evlenmemiş bakire kız
[2]Hz. İsa'nın annesinin adıdır.

Button Icon BlueSky Açıklamalar Farsçadan Türkçeye Meryem ismi mar marı olarak girmiş bir kelimedir. Rumeli Kayı Türkçesinde Marı ismi sıfat olarakta vardır ve "marı nereye? " şeklinde kullanılır. Türkçenin müslümanlık öncesi Farsçadan en çok etkilendiği dönemde dilimize Meryem Marı olarak kız anlamında girmiştir. Hatta bu konuda Türkemenistan da Selçukluların Oğuz boylarının geldiği yöre olan Balkan Vilayeti olduğu gibi Marı vilayeti de vardır. Marı(Mary) vilayetinin içerinde yer alan Merv şehri veya Merw şehri -ki 11 yy da dünyanın en büyük şehri idi- Marı olarak anılmakta idi. Hatta halen de Marı olarak Türkmenlerce zaman zaman kullanılmaktadır. Bu anlamın dışında fiil olarak kullanıldığında "dikkat , baksana , hey , hazır ol , emre amade ol" anlamında da kullanılır. Ayşe!, marı! dur.

<p style="margin-bottom: 0.5em;" title="Diğer dillerdeki karşılıkları">Crystal Clear app internet Çeviriler

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WictEdit

TurkishEdit

Proper nounEdit

Şablon:İnfl

  1. Şablon:Given name, equivalent to Mary and Miriam.

MiriamEdit

EnglishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Hebrew מִרְיָם (Miryam), possibly from Aramaic מרים (Maryām), bitter, from a root מר (MR) meaning "to be bitter". The meaning of this name which is the Old Testament equivalent of Mary has been debated for centuries. Some say that it mean mutiny / rebellion / disobedience from a root מרי.

Proper nounEdit

Şablon:En-proper noun

  1. Şablon:Biblical character Sister of Moses and Aaron, and the daughter of Amram and Jochebed.
  2. Şablon:Given name.

QuotationsEdit

  • Şablon:RQ:Authorized Version
    And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand; and all the women went out after her with timbrels and with dances.

TranslationsEdit

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See alsoEdit


CzechEdit

Wikipedia-logo-tr
ile ilgili daha fazla bilgiye ingilizce wikipedia'dan ulaşabilirsiniz.

Proper nounEdit

Şablon:Cs-proper noun

  1. Şablon:Given name, cognate to Miriam.

DanishEdit

Proper nounEdit

Şablon:İnfl

  1. Şablon:Given name, variant of Mirjam.

DutchEdit

Proper nounEdit

Şablon:Nl-proper noun

  1. Şablon:Given name, variant of Mirjam.

GermanEdit

Proper nounEdit

Şablon:İnfl

  1. Şablon:Given name, variant of Mirjam.

NorwegianEdit

Proper nounEdit

Şablon:İnfl

  1. Şablon:Given name, variant of Mirjam.

SwedishEdit

Proper nounEdit

Şablon:İnfl

  1. Şablon:Given name, variant of Mirjam.

de:Miriam es:Miriam fr:Miriam is:Miriam it:Miriam li:Miriam hu:Miriam no:Miriam pl:Miriam sr:Miriam

WP MiriamEdit

This article is about the Biblical sister of Moses. For other uses, see İsa'ya (disambiguation).
Dosya:Miriam WilliamGale.jpg

Miriam (Hebrew: מִרְיָם</span>, Modern Miryam Tiberian Miryām ; Arabic: ميريام; see Miriam (given name)) was the sister of Moses and Aaron, and the daughter of Amram and Jochebed. She appears first in the Book of Exodus in the Hebrew Bible.

Biblical accountEdit

Miriam is called a prophetess, and is traditionally believed to have composed a brief victory song after Pharaoh’s army was drowned in the Red Sea (Exodus 15:20-21).

“Sing to the Lord, for he has triumphed gloriously;
Horse and rider he has thrown into the sea.”

Later, she objected to the marriage of Moses to a Cushite woman, which made her guilty of speaking Lashon hara (gossiping, or speaking negatively about someone), for which she was struck with tzaraat. After Aaron asked Moses to intercede for her, Moses uttered a five-word prayer: El nah refa nah-la — “O Lord, make her well,” and she recovered within seven days. (Numbers 12) A passage in Micah suggests she had a legacy with significant regard among later prophets: “And I brought you forth out of the land of Egypt, and redeemed you from the house of bondage, and I sent before you Moses, and Aaron, and Miriam.” (Micah 6:4)

Dosya:Miriams Tanz.jpg

Miriam in Jewish cultureEdit

The poetic couplet in Exodus 15 is considered by many that this poetic couplet is one of the oldest parts of the Biblical account. Rashi’s commentary on this verse, based on the Mekhilta (Be-Shalah, ch. 10), states “Moses chanted a song for the men; he would chant for them and they would answer him. And Miriam chanted a song for the women.” In other words, the Song on the Sea was recited twice, for the men and the women in parallel. Moses chanted the song in its entirety for the men, who answered him in refrain, and Miriam repeated this procedure for the women.

Miriam is a popular figure among some Jewish feminists. Some place a “Cup of Miriam,” filled with water, beside the customary “Cup of Elijah” (filled with wine) during the Passover Seder. The cup contains water in memory of Miriam's well, which according to a Midrash (see Ginzberg, Legends of the Jews 3, 50-54) accompanied the Israelites on their journey through the desert. Some Modern OrthodoxŞablon:Who Jews have revived a millennium-old custom of adding a piece of fish to the seder plate, with the lamb, egg and fish jointly symbolizing the three prophets referred to in Micah 6:4, and also alluding to the mythical beasts (the bird Ziz, the animal Behemoth, and the sea-creature Leviathan) which, according to Midrash, are to be served at the Seudat Chiyat HaMatim, the feast for the righteous following the resurrection of the dead, which the Passover Seder (and the Cup of Elijah) allude to. The fish represents Leviathan as well as Miriam and is also a water symbol.[1]

Quranic AccountEdit

In the Quran, Miriam is mentioned as the sister of Moses without any name.The reason for that was mainly not to cause any confusion between her and Mary the mother of Jesus. However, Muslims refer to her as Merriam, which is pronounced differently than the Arabic equivalent of the name of Mary the mother of Jesus. In the Quran, Miriam is the sister of Moses who obeyed her mother's request to follow the baby Moses as he floated down the river in a basket, his mother having set him afloat so he would not be killed by the Pharaoh's servants and soldiers. (28:11). Later on Asiya, the wife of the Pharaoh, finds Moses at the river and adopts him as her own, but Moses refuses to be suckled by her. Miriam asks Asiya and her handmaidens to have his own own mother act as nursemaid to Moses, his mother's identity not being known to Asiya. (28:12–13).

MarriageEdit

Josephus in Antiquities of the Jews states that Miriam was the wife of Hur, who is mentioned in Exodus as a close companion of Moses.[2] However, in the Targum to I Chron. ii. 19, iv. 4, Miriam is said to be Hur's mother, asserting that Ephrath, the wife of Caleb, was another name for Miriam.

Snow-white MiriamEdit

At Hazeroth, Miriam and Aaron speak against Moses because:

of the Cushite (Ethiopian) woman whom he had married: for he had married a Cushite woman

Miriam and Aaron question Moses’ exclusive religious authority, since they consider themselves to also have been prophets.

'They said, 'Was it only to Moses that God spoke? Did he not speak to us as well?

God hears and calls all three to the door of the tabernacle. When they arrive, God states to them that Moses has a much greater authority than Miriam and Aaron; indeed, He chooses to speak to Moses face to face, rather than merely through dreams.

In anger, God subsequently visits a punishment on Miriam, giving her tzaraath turning her “white as snow.” According to the rules concerning tzaraath, Miriam must then live outside of the camp, in isolation, only being allowed back when Moses intercedes with God on her behalf. Nevertheless, God insists that she still be punished for seven days. (Numbers 12:10-14)

Rabbinic InterpretationEdit

According to the Hebrew Bible anyone with tzaraath was tamei (Leviticus 13-14) The Rabbis of the Talmud noted that Aaron did not receive the same punishment as his sister, otherwise he would no longer have been able to perform his duties as high priest.

Ilana Pardes, a feminist biblical scholar, writes that, "the fact that Miriam is punished while Aaron is spared suggests that the Law has even less sympathy for oppositional female voices."[3]

Form criticismEdit

Zipporah is identified as the wife of Moses, so the traditional Jewish and Christian view is that Zipporah is the woman that Miriam opposes. However, Zipporah is described as being a Cushite from Midian. According to Richard E. Friedman, because Cush refers to Ethiopia (Note: “Ethiopia” in ancient resources refers to the region of Nubia in modern Sudan.) or other lands well outside, the “Cushite woman” of the story is not Zipporah. Friedman, building on interpretations from the documentary hypothesis, notes that Zipporah is only mentioned in the Jahwist text, while the story of Snow-white Miriam is assigned to the Elohist, and so, in each, Moses only ever has one wife.[4]

According to Friedman's interpretation, these two accounts reflected the stories of two different, rival priesthoods, the Aaronid priesthood in the Kingdom of Judah, which claimed descent from Aaron and which controlled the Temple in Jerusalem, and a priesthood based at Shiloh, in the Kingdom of Israel. Friedman, following the tradition of the documentary hypothesis, asserts that various Biblical tales were created or publicized by these factions in order to add an aura of legitimacy to their various claims to privilege and power. According to Friedman, the Elohist was from, or supported, the Shiloh priesthood, and thus had a strong motivation to repeat or create this tale.[4]

ReferencesEdit

  1. Where is Miriam on the Seder plate? Yael Levine, Edah, YNet News.com, 2006-11-04. Retrieved 2007-05-13.
  2. Antiquities, Book 3, ch. 1
  3. Countertraditions in the Bible. Harvard University Press (October 15, 1993). Page 9.'
  4. 4,0 4,1 {{{başlık}}}. ISBN 0-06-063035-3.


ar:ميريام ca:Míriam cs:Miriam (Mojžíšova sestra) da:Mirjam de:Mirjam (Prophetin) eo:Mirjam fa:میریام fr:Myriam it:Miriam (Esodo) he:מרים הנביאה sw:Mariamu (dada wa Musa) lb:Mirjam lt:Mirjama nl:Mirjam ja:ミリアム no:Mirjam pl:Miriam (postać biblijna) pt:Miriã sl:Mirjam fi:Mirjam

sv:Mirjam

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