Yenişehir Wiki
Advertisement
Yenişehir Wiki
80.313
pages
Al-Isra
الإسراء
Classification Makkan
Meaning of the name The Night Journey
Other names Bani Israel (Children of Israel)
Statistics
Sura number 17
Number of verses 111
Juz' number 15
Hizb number 29 to 30
Number of Sajdahs 1 (verse 109)
Number of Ayats on particular subjects Dosya:017 abdulbaset israa'.ogg[1]
Previous Sura An-Nahl
Next Sura Al-Kahf
Listen to Surah Al - Israa

Sura Al-Isra (Arapça: سورة الإسراء‎, Sūratu al-Isrā, "The Night Journey"), also called Sura Bani Isra'il (i.e. Children of Israel), is the 17th chapter of the Qur'an, with 111 verses.

Content[]

This Surah takes its name from the first verse, which tells the story of the Isra and Mi'raj, the transportation of Muhammad during the night to what is referred to as "the farthest Mosque" (the sky). The exact location is not specified, although in Islamic Hadith this is commonly taken to be the Noble Sanctuary (Temple Mount) in Jerusalem. Some scholars disagree about this (see Isra and Mi'raj). While the city of Jerusalem (or al Quds) is not mentioned by name anywhere in the Qur'an, it is identified in various Hadith. The first verse refers to Mohammed being taken from The 'Sacred Mosque' to the 'Furthest Mosque':

Glory to (Allah) Who did take His servant for a Journey by night from the Sacred Mosque to the farthest Mosque, whose precincts We did bless,- in order that We might show him some of Our Signs: for He is the One Who heareth and seeth (all things).

It is generally agreed upon that the 'Furthest Mosque' refers to Masjid al-Aqsa in Jerusalem and the 'Sacred Mosque' refers to Masjid al-Haram. The Surah also has refers to the other Prophets for example, Moses.

This Meccan surah was revealed in the last year before the Hijra. Like all the Meccan surah it stresses the oneness of Allah, the authority of the prophets. However, the primary theme of the Surah is salah (daily prayers), whose number is said to have been fixed at five during the Miraj which it alludes to. In addition, the Surah forbids adultery, calls for respect for father and mother, and calls for patience and control in the face of the persecutions the Muslim community was facing at the time.

Iyaat 71 contains a reference to the Qiyamah, the Day of Judgement:

One day We shall call together all human beings with their (respective) Imams: those who are given their record in their right hand will read it (with pleasure), and they will not be dealt with unjustly in the least.

Iyaat 8 Refers to Hell and states that those who reject the faith will be punished to it:

It may be that your Lord may (yet) show Mercy unto you; but if ye revert (to your sins), We shall revert (to Our punishments): And we have made Hell a prison for those who reject (all Faith).

However it also states that Allah is merciful and could forgive you.

It also refers to the hereafter and states that there is a punishment for not believing in it(Verse 10):

And to those who believe not in the Hereafter, (it announceth) that We have prepared for them a Penalty Grievous (indeed).

Iyaat 13-15 tells us that our fate is in our hands and tells us that what we do will be rewarded or punished for on the Day of Judgement:

Every man's fate We have fastened on his own neck: On the Day of Judgment We shall bring out for him a scroll, which he will see spread open. (It will be said to him:) "Read thine (own) record: Sufficient is thy soul this day to make out an account against thee." Who receiveth guidance, receiveth it for his own benefit: who goeth astray doth so to his own loss: No bearer of burdens can bear the burden of another: nor would We visit with Our Wrath until We had sent an messenger (to give warning).

Iyaat 104 tells us that the Children of Israel dwelt securely in the Promised Land.

[Qur'an 17:26][]

Ana madde: Al-Isra, 26

See also[]

Previous sura:
An-Nahl
The Qur'an - Sura 17 Next sura:
Al-Kahf
Arabic text

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114

External links[]

Wikisource-logo.svg
Vikikaynak'ta, The Holy Qur'an/Al-Isra, Qur'an - Al-Isra ile ilgili metin bulabilirsiniz.


ace:Surat Al-Isra' ar:سورة الإسراء az:İsra surəsi bn:বনী-ইসরাঈল (সূরা) de:Al-Isra fa:اسراء hi:अल-इस्र id:Surah Al-Isra' ku:Îsra mzn:اسرا ms:Surah Al-Israa’ nl:Soera De Nachtreis pt:Al-Isra ru:Сура Аль-Исра sv:Al-Isra tr:İsra Suresi ur:الاسرا


Dosya:Miraj by Sultan Muhammad.jpg

A 16th century Persian miniature painting celebrating Muhammad's ascent into the Heavens, a journey known as the Miraj. Muhammad's face is veiled, a common practice in Islamic art.

Dosya:Al-Buraf Hafifa.jpg

A Burag seen on an reproduction of a 17th century Indian Mughal miniature.

TajMahalbyAmalMongia.jpg

Part of a series on
Islamic culture

Architecture

Arabic  ·Azeri
Indo-Islamic  ·Iwan
Moorish  · Moroccan  · Mughal
Ottoman  ·Persian  ·Somali
Sudano-Sahelian  · Tatar

Art

Calligraphy  · Miniature  · Rugs

Dress

Abaya  ·Agal  ·Boubou
Burqa  ·Chador  · Jellabiya
Niqab  ·Salwar kameez  ·Taqiya
kufiya  ·Thawb  ·Jilbāb  ·Hijab

Holidays

Ashura  ·Arba'een  ·al-Ghadeer
Chaand Raat  ·al-Fitr  ·al-Adha
Imamat Day  ·al-Kadhim
New Year  ·Isra and Mi'raj
al-Qadr  ·Mawlid  ·Ramadan
Mugam  ·Mid-Sha'ban
al-Taiyyab

Literature

Arabic  ·Azeri  ·Bengali
Indonesian  ·Javanese  ·Kashmiri
Kurdish  ·Persian  ·Punjabi  ·Sindhi
Somali  · South Asian  ·Turkish  ·Urdu

Martial arts

Silat  · Kurash

Music
Dastgah

 ·Ghazal  ·Madih nabawi
Maqam  ·Mugam  ·Nasheed
Qawwali

Theatre

Karagöz and Hacivat
Ta'zieh  ·Wayang

50px

Islam Portal
 v  d  e 

In Islamic tradition, the Night Journey, Isra and Mi'raj (Arapça: الإسراء والمعراج‎, al-’Isrā’ wal-Mi‘rāğ), are the two parts of a journey that the Islamic prophet Muhammad took in one night on a winged horse, around the year 621. Many Muslims consider it a physical journey while others say it happened spiritually through a metaphorical vision. Some others say that when Muhammad ascended it was a physical journey until he reached the farthest lote tree, a tree in the Seventh Heaven beyond which no angel is allowed to cross, on the other side of which is the throne and footstool of God. Also in the Seventh Heaven there is a Ka'bah of sorts for the angels. It is said since the dawn of time 70,000 angels entered and were never seen again. The angel Ka'bah is in direct conjunction with the Ka'bah on earth. The comparison from each have to the next was said to be like a ring in the desert. But some scholars consider it a dream or vision.[1][2] A brief sketch of the story is in verse 1 of one of the Qur'an chapters (#17: sura Al-Isra), and other details were filled in from the supplemental writings, the aḥādīth.

The event is celebrated each year via a festival for families, the Lailat al Miraj, one of the most important events in the Islamic calendar.[3] Muslims bring their children to the mosques, where the children are told the story, pray with the adults, and then afterward food and treats are served.

Religious Belief[]

The Isra begins with Muhammad resting in the Kaaba in Mecca, when the archangel Gabriel comes to him, and brings him the winged steed Buraq.The buraq was said to be longer than a donkey but smaller than a mule it was also said that each stride of the buraq would take you to the horizon. It was the traditional lightning steed of the prophets. The Buraq then carries Muhammad to the Masjid Al Aqsa the "Farthest Mosque", which many Muslims believe is "the Noble sanctuary" (Temple Mount) in Jerusalem. Muhammad alights, tethers Buraq to the al-Buraaq Wall, and leads the other prophets of Abrahamic descent in prayer. He then re-mounts Buraq, and in the second part of the journey, the Mi'raj (an Arabic word that literally means “ladder”[4]), he is taken to the heavens, where he tours the circles of heaven, and speaks with the earlier prophets such as Ibrāhīm (Abraham), Musa (Moses), and `Īsā (Jesus), and then is taken by Gabriel to God. According to traditions, Allah instructs Muhammad that Muslims must pray fifty times a day; however, Moses tells Muhammad that it is very difficult for them and they could never do it, and urges Muhammad to go back several times and ask for a reduction, until finally it is reduced to five times a day.[3][5][6][7][8]

After Muhammad returned to Earth and told his story in Mecca, the unbelieving townspeople regarded it as absurd. Some go to Muhammad's companion Abu Bakr and said to him, "Look at what your companion is saying. He says he went to Jerusalem and came back in one night." Abu Bakr in replies, "If he said that, then he is truthful. I believe him concerning the news of the heavens—that an angel descends to him from the heavens. How could I not believe he went to Jerusalem and came back in a short period of time—when these are on earth?" It was for this that Abu Bakr is said to have received his famous title "As-Siddiq", The Truthful.

Buraq[]

Ana madde: Buraq

A Buraq is a mythological winged horse described commonly as a creature which carried the Islamic prophet Muhammad from Mecca to al-Aqsa during the Isra and Mi'raj or "Night Journey" either physically or spiritually through a metaphorical vision. An excerpt from a translation of Sahih al-Bukhari describes a buraq:

« I was brought by the Buraq, which is an animal white and long, larger than a donkey but smaller than a mule, who would place its hoof at a distance equal to the range of vision.[9] »

Masjid al-Aqsa, the farthest mosque[]

Though at the time of the Isra and Mi'raj, there was no mosque in that location, the term "the farthest mosque"[10] (Arapça: المسجد الأقصى‎, al-Masğidu 'l-’Aqṣà), from sura Al-Isra, is traditionally interpreted by Muslims as referring to the site at the Noble Sanctuary (Temple Mount) in Jerusalem. This interpretation is agreed with by even the earliest biographer of Muhammad—Ibn Ishaq—and is supported by numerous aḥādīth. The term used for mosque, "masjid", literally means "place of prostration", and includes monotheistic places of worship such as Solomon's Temple, which in verse 17:7[11] (in the same sura) is described as a masjid. Some Muslim scholars argue that "the farthest mosque" referred to in the Qur'an actually points to the Temple.[12]

Many Western historians, such as Heribert Busse[13] and Neal Robinson,[14] agree that Jerusalem is the originally intended interpretation. However, many disagree, arguing that at the time this verse of the Qur'an was recited (around the year 621, unless one follows Wansbrough) most Muslims understood the phrase "farthest mosque" as a poetic phrase for a mosque already known to them, the mosque in Heaven, or as a metaphor.[citation needed] For the following reasons, they find it unlikely that this verse referred to a location in Palestine: But it is also true that initially Muslims used to pray while facing towards bait-ul-moqaddas or the Temple Mount or the Holy Land. Later on this direction, the Qibla, was changed to Mecca.

Dosya:Al aqsa moschee 2.jpg

The modern Al-Aqsa Mosque, built after Muhammad's lifetime

Critics also point out that at the time of Muhammad's vision, there was no mosque on the Noble Sanctuary in Jerusalem. That structure was not built until after Muhammad's death, when Muslims finally did conquer and occupy Jerusalem. At that time the Umayyads built a new mosque on the Temple Mount; naming it the Al-Aqsa Mosque or "farthest mosque". Abdul Latif Tibawi, a Palestinian historian, argues that this action "gave reality to the figurative name used in the Koran."[15] Although, some Muslim scholars counter that argument, stating that since Muslims believe in all the prior prophets including Solomon, they consider Solomon's Temple a sacred place. Thus they call it a mosque. A further understanding of the religion, which puts Islam as the final religion that supersedes all other Abrahamic religions (which Muslims believe in) shows why such a theory is feasible.

Critics also state that there were already two places that Muslim tradition of that time period called "the farthest mosque"; one was the mosque in Medina,[16] and the other was the mosque in the town of Jirana, which Muhammed is said to have visited in 630.[17]

Another point levied against the claim that the farthest mosque was in Jerusalem is the fact that the passage in the Qur'an states that the journey had but one leg, not two.

« Glory to (Allah) Who did take His servant for a Journey by night from the Sacred Mosque to the farthest Mosque, whose precincts We did bless,- in order that We might show him some of Our Signs: for He is the One Who heareth and seeth (all things).  »
(Qur'an)

However, as is always the case with polemics and criticisms, counterpoints of interpretation have been offered in that the verse can also be read as merely stating that the journey was from the point of origin to the farthest mosque so that Muhammad "might be shown Our Signs". Thereby not purporting to present a travel itinerary, rather as a verse describing a part of the journey and then moving ahead to describe the signs in question. Further indications to support this view can be found in a continued reading of the entire verse, wherein the Isra is used merely as an introduction or sign while the rest of the verse goes on to describe commandments and God's expectations from man, as well as citing examples of Moses, Nūḥ (Noah) and Adem (Adam) as more Signs. The actual details as left for Isra and Miraj exist primarily in numerous aḥādīth that chronicle Muhammad's descriptions of his experiences that night- the actual descriptions of the Signs referenced in the first extract of the verse.

Further argumentation against Medina's mosque being the mosque in question here is that Medina's mosque was built and officially recognized after Muhammad's Hijra in 622 AD, whereas Isra is to have occurred 10 years prior in 612 AD, when the qibla of the Muslims was still Jerusalem. Consequently even when this verse was "revealed" in 621 AD, Medina or Jirat would not be viable candidates for the farthest mosque as described in the aḥādīth, while the verse of the Quran is not citing specifics rather citing the journey to the farthest mosque merely as an allusive reference to one example of the more central theme of "Our Signs".

Modern observance[]

This celebrated event in Islam is considered to have taken place before the Hijra and after Muhammad's visit to the people of Ta’if. It is considered by some to have happened just over a year before the Hijra, on the 27th of Rajab; but this date is not always recognized. In Shi'a Iran for example, Rajab 27 is the day of Muhammad's first calling or Mab'as.

The Lailat al Miraj (Arapça: لیلة المعراج‎, Lailätu 'l-Mi‘rāğ), also known as Shab-e-Miraj (Persian: شب معراج, Šab-e Mi'râj) in Iran, Pakistan, India and Bangladesh, and Miraç Kandili in Turkish, is the Muslim festival celebrating the Isra and Mi'raj. Muslims celebrate this event by offering optional prayers during this night, and in many Muslim countries, by illuminating cities with electric lights and candles. The celebrations around this day tend to focus on children and the young. Children are gathered into a mosque and are told the story of the Isra and Mi'raj. The story usually focuses on how Muhammad's heart was purified by an archangel (Gabriel) and filled him with knowledge and faith in preparation to enter the seven levels of heaven. After prayer (Salat, where the children can pray with the adults if they wish) food and treats are served.[3][18][19] Esoteric interpretations of Islam emphasise the spiritual significance of Mi'raj, seeing it as a symbol of the soul’s journey and the potential of humans to rise above the comforts of material life through prayer, piety and discipline.[4]

Qur'an and hadith[]

There is very little in the Qur'an about the event, though the Isra and Mi'raj have been discussed in detail in supplemental traditions to the Qur'an, known as hadith literature. Within the Qur'an itself, there are two verses in chapter 17, which has been named after the Isra, and is called "Chapter Isra" or "Sura Al-Isra". There is also some information in Sura An-Najm, which some say is related to the Isra and Mi'raj.[20]

Qur'an[]

« Glory to (Allah) Who did take His servant for a Journey by night from the Sacred Mosque to the farthest Mosque, whose precincts We did bless,- in order that We might show him some of Our Signs: for He is the One Who heareth and seeth (all things). »
(Qur'an)
« Behold! We told thee that thy Lord doth encompass mankind round about: We granted the vision which We showed thee, but as a trial for men,- as also the Cursed Tree (mentioned) in the Qur'an: We put terror (and warning) into them, but it only increases their inordinate transgression! »
(Qur'an)
« For indeed he saw him at a second descent,
Near the Lote-tree beyond which none may pass:
Near it is the Garden of Abode.
Behold, the Lote-tree was shrouded (in mystery unspeakable!)
(His) sight never swerved, nor did it go wrong!
For truly did he see, of the Signs of his Lord, the Greatest! »
(Qur'an)

Hadith[]

Of the supplemental writings, hadith, two of the best known are by Anas ibn Malik, who would have been a young boy at the time of Muhammad's journey.

The following hadith, which have all been authenticated by Muslims, also clarify that Masjid al-Aqsa (the farthest mosque) is indeed located in Jerusalem:

  • Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: (regarding the Verse) "And We granted the vision (Ascension to the heavens "Miraj") which We showed you (O Muhammad as an actual eye witness) but as a trial for mankind.' (17.60): Allah's Apostle actually saw with his own eyes the vision (all the things which were shown to him) on the night of his Night Journey to Jerusalem (and then to the heavens). The cursed tree which is mentioned in the Qur'an is the tree of Az-Zaqqum.[21]
  • Narrated Abu Huraira: On the night Allah's Apostle was taken on a night journey (Miraj) two cups, one containing wine and the other milk, were presented to him at Jerusalem. He looked at it and took the cup of milk. Gabriel said, "Praise be to Allah Who guided you to Al-Fitra (the right path); if you had taken (the cup of) wine, your nation would have gone astray."[22][23]
  • Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah: That he heard Allah's Apostle saying, "When the people of Quraish did not believe me (i.e. the story of my Night Journey), I stood up in Al-Hijr and Allah displayed Jerusalem in front of me, and I began describing it to them while I was looking at it."[24]

See also[]

  • Dome of the Rock
  • Foundation Stone
  • Mut‘im ibn ‘Adi
  • Muhammad in Mecca
  • Islamic view of miracles

References[]

  1. Encyclopedia of Islam and Muslim world, Macmillan reference, USA, 2004. p.482
  2. {{{başlık}}}. ISBN 9780881254280.
  3. 3,0 3,1 3,2 Şablon hatası:başlık gerekiyor.
  4. 4,0 4,1 Mi'raj — The night journey
  5. IslamAwareness.net - Isra and Mi'raj, The Details
  6. About.com - The Meaning of Isra' and Mi'raj in Islam
  7. Google books - Heavenly journeys, earthly concerns By Brooke Olson Vuckovic
  8. Google books - Muhammad By Omar Mahmoud
  9. Sahih al-Bukhari 5, 58, 227
  10. Qur'an 17:1 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)
  11. Qur'an 17:7
  12. Moiz Amjad, The Position of Jerusalem and the Bayet al-Maqdas in Islam, Al-Mawrid
  13. Heribert Busse, "Jerusalem in the Story of Muhammad's Night Journey and Ascension," Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 14 (1991): 1–40.
  14. N. Robinson, Discovering The Qur'ân: A Contemporary Approach To A Veiled Text, 1996, SCM Press Ltd.: London, p. 192.
  15. AL Tibawi, Jerusalem: Its Place in Islam and Arab History, Beirut: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1969, p. 9
  16. Arthur Jeffrey, The Suppressed Quran Commentary of Muhammad Abu Zaid, Der Islam, 20 (1932): 306
  17. Alfred Guillaume, Where Was Al-Masjid Al-Aqsa? Al-Andalus, (18) 1953: 323–36
  18. BBC Religion and Ethics - Lailat al Miraj
  19. WRMEA article on Muslim holidays
  20. Qur'an 53:13–18 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)
  21. Sahih Bukhari: Divine Will (Al-Qadar), Book 8, Volume 77, Hadith 610.
  22. Sahih Bukhari: Drinks, Book 7, Volume 69, Hadith 482.
  23. Sahih Bukhari: Prophetic Commentary on the Qur'an (Tafseer of the Prophet), Book 6, Volume 60, Hadith 232.
  24. Sahih Bukhari: Merits of the Helpers in Madinah (Ansaar), Book 5, Volume 58, Hadith 226.
  • A. Bevan, Mohammed's Ascension to Heaven, in "Studien zu Semitischen Philologie und Religionsgeschichte Julius Wellhausen," (Topelman, 1914,pp. 53-54.)
  • B. Schreike, "Die Himmelreise Muhammeds," Der Islam 6 (1915–16): 1-30
  • Colby, Frederick. The Subtleties of the Ascension: Lata'if Al-Miraj: Early Mystical Sayings on Muhammad's Heavenly Journey. City: Fons Vitae, 2006.[
  • J. Horovitz, "Muhammeds Himmelfahrt," Der Islam 9 (1919): 159-83
  • Heribert Busse and Georg Kretschmar, Jerusalemer Heiligstumstraditionen (Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1987)
  • Heribert Busse, "The Destruction Of The Temple And Its Reconstruction In The Light Of Muslim Exegesis Of Sûra 17:2–8", Jerusalem Studies In Arabic And Islam, 1996, Vol. 20, p. 1.

External links[]


ar:إسراء ومعراج bs:Isra i miradž da:Isra og miraj es:Miraj fa:معراج fr:Isra et Miraj id:Isra dan Mi'raj it:Isra' e Mi'raj he:המסע הלילי של מוחמד ms:Isra dan Mi'raj nl:Nachtreis pl:Miradż ru:Мирадж simple:Isra and Mi'raj sv:Isra och Miraj te:ఇస్రా మరియు మేరాజ్ tr:Mirac ur:معراج zh:夜行登霄