Suçlu sanılarak mahkemeye verilen kimsenin iddia olunan fiilin Faili olmadığını veya Bu fiilin suç teşkil etmediğine dair ceza mahkemesinden çıkan hüküm CUMUK/253 260
Beraet-i zimmet: bir şahsın zimmetinin yani nefsinin ve zatının bir şeyin vücut ve lüzumundan hali olması,
Yani bir hak ile meşgul olmaması.
Suçsuz olduğu anlaşılacak temize çıkma
Beraet-i zimmet mazbatası: mesul muhasiplerin, hesaplarının Tamam olduğunu, açıkları bulunmadığını, terfilerini ve işten ayrılma sebebini gösteren vesikalar. Alakalı daire veya kurul tarafından tanzim olurdu. Bugün hukuki kıymeti yoktur.
Berat : 1.bir kimseye madalya veya herhangi bir ayrıcalık verildiğini bildiren belge İstiklal Madalyası Beratı 2 . buluş imtiyaz vazife veya rutbe verildiğini bildiren resmi daireler tarafından verilen belge: ihtira beratı.
Berat-ı cibayet : hazineye veya vakfa ait vergi resim ve icralara para vesair varidatı tahsil eden memura bu vazifenin ifası için verilen belge
The presumption of innocence is universally recognized as a fundamental human right and a core principle in the administration of criminal justice. Nonetheless, statutes creating criminal offences regularly depart from the presumption of innocence by requiring defendants to prove specific matters in order to avoid conviction.
Legislatures and courts seek to justify this departure by asserting that the reversal of the burden of proof is necessary to meet the community interest in prosecuting serious crime and maintaining workable criminal sanctions. This book investigates the supposed justifications for limitation of the presumption of innocence. It does so through a comprehensive analysis of the history, rationale and scope of the presumption of innocence. It is argued that the values underlying the presumption of innocence are of such fundamental importance to individual liberty that they cannot be sacrificed on the altar of community interest. In particular, it is argued that a test of 'proportionality', which seeks to weigh individual rights against the community interest, is inappropriate in the context of the presumption of innocence and that courts ought instead to focus on whether an impugned measure threatens the values which the presumption is designed to protect. The book undertakes a complete and systematic review of the United Kingdom and Strasbourg authority on the presumption of innocence. It also draws upon extensive references to comparative material, both judicial and academic, from the United States, Canada and South Africa.
The Presumption of Innocence is an engaging work, providing a thoroughly researched and thoughtfully reasoned thesis that is evident throughout the book. Readers will find that additional commentary is diligently supplied on almost every major issue presented. Further, Stumer avoids preaching to the converted. Opposing viewpoints are openly acknowledged and examined for their strengths and weaknesses. One of the book's great strengths is that it will appeal to readers beyond the legal profession, while also offering very astute observations about certain finer points of legal analysis. Faith Baron Saskatchewan Law Review Volume 74, 2011
About the Author
Andrew Stumer is a practising barrister in Brisbane, Australia. He obtained his DPhil in law from the University of Oxford in 2008