- For other uses, see Bursa/WP (disambiguation).
Location of Bursa
Bursa is located in Turkey
<div style="position: absolute; z-index: 2; top: İfade hatası: Tanınmayan noktalama karakteri "["%; left: İfade hatası: Tanınmayan noktalama karakteri "["%; height: 0; width: 0; margin: 0; padding: 0;">Bursa
|- Mayor||Recep Altepe (AKP)|
|- City||Şablon:İnfobox settlement/permi2km2|
|Elevation||100 m (328 ft)|
|- Density||150.852 m (494.921 ft)|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|- Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
|Area code(s)||(+90) 224|
Bursa (Turkish pronunciation: [ˈbuɾsa]) (Greek: Προύσα) is a city in northwestern Turkey and the seat of Bursa Province. The metropolitan area in the entire Bursa province had a population of 2.6 million as of 2010, making the city fourth most populous in Turkey. The city is equally one of the most industrialized metropolitan centers in the country.
The city is frequently cited as "Yeşil Bursa" (meaning "Green Bursa") in reference to the parks and gardens located across its urban tissue, as well as to the vast forests in rich variety that extend in the surrounding region. The city is synonymous with Mount Uludağ which towers behind its core and which is also a famous ski resort. The mausoleums of early the Ottoman sultans are located in Bursa and the numerous edifices built throughout the Ottoman period constitute the city's main landmarks. The surrounding fertile plain, its thermal baths, several interesting museums, notably a rich museum of archaeology, and a rather orderly urban growth are further principal elements that complete Bursa's overall picture.
Karagöz and Hacivat shadow play characters were historic personalities who lived and are buried in Bursa. Bursa is also home to some of the most famous Turkish dishes such as İskender kebap, specially candied marron glacés, peaches and lokum. Bursa is home to the Uludağ University, and its population attains one of the highest overall levels of education in Turkey. Within the Bursa Province, the towns of İznik (Nicaea), Mudanya and Zeytinbağı are especially notable for their long history and important monuments.
The earliest known settlement at this location was the Ancient Greek city of Cius, which Philip V of Macedon granted to Prusias, the King of Bithynia, in 202 BC. Prusias rebuilt the city and renamed it to Prusia (Προύσα). After 128 years of Bithynian rule; Nicomedes IV, the last King of Bithynia, bequeathed the entire kingdom to Roman Empire in 74 BC.
Bursa became the first capital city of the Ottoman Empire following its capture from the Byzantine Empire in 1326. Throughout the 14th and 15th centuries the city witnessed a considerable amount of urban growth. In 1365 the Ottomans conquered and moved the capital to Edirne. However Bursa remained to be the most important administrative and commercial center in the empire until Mehmed II conquered İstanbul.
Following the foundation of the Republic of Turkey, Bursa became one of the industrial centers of the country. The economic development of the city was followed by population growth and Bursa became the 4th most populous city in Turkey.
Bursa is settled on the northwestern slopes of Mount Uludağ in the southern Marmara Region. It is the capital city of Bursa Province bordered by the Sea of Marmara and Yalova to the north; Kocaeli and Sakarya to the northeast; Bilecik to the east; and Kütahya and Balıkesir to the south.
Bursa has a borderline Mediterranean/humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa/Cfa). Bursa has hot, humid summers that last from June until September. Winters are cold and damp, also containing the most rainfall, there can be snow on the ground which will last for a week or two. In the mountains; especially Uludağ, it is freezing and snows all winter, summer on the mountains are pleasantly warm.
Bursa is the center of the Turkish automotive industry. Factories of motor vehicle producers like FIAT, Renault and Karsan, as well as automotive parts producers like Bosch, Mako, Valeo and Delphi have been active in the city for decades. The textile and food industries are equally strong, with Coca Cola, Pepsi Cola and other beverage brands, as well as fresh and canned food industries being present in the city's organized industrial zones. The top 10 industry corporations in the Bursa province are as follows.
- Oyak Renault
- Tofaş Fiat
- Türk Prysmian Kablo
- Sütaş Dairy Products
- Bis Enerji
- Zorlu Enerji
- Borusan Mannesmann Boru
- Componenta Döktaş
Traditionally, Bursa was famous for being the largest center of silk trade in the Byzantine and later the Ottoman empires, during the period of the lucrative Silk Road. The city is still a major center for textiles in Turkey and is home to the Bursa International Textiles and Trade Center (Bursa Uluslararası Tekstil ve Ticaret Merkezi, or BUTTIM.) Bursa was also known for its fertile soil and agricultural activities, which have decreased in the recent decades due to the heavy industrialization of the city.
Bursa is a major center for tourism. One of the most popular skiing resorts of Turkey is located at Uludağ just next to the city proper. Bursa's thermal baths have been used for therapeutical purposes since Roman times. Apart from the baths that are operated by hotels, Uludağ University has a physical therapy center which also makes use of thermal water.
Bursa has two public universities and one private university. Uludağ University, founded in 1975, is the oldest institution of higher education in Bursa. Founded first as the Bursa University then renamed to Uludağ University in 1982, the university has a student body of 47,000, one of the largest in Turkey. Bursa Technical University is the second public university of Bursa and it established in 2010, started education in 2011-2012 academic year. The first private university of Bursa is Bursa Orhangazi University, which is going to start its first education in 2012-2013 academic year.
A brief list of places of interest in and around Bursa is presented below. For a longer list, see places of interest in Bursa.
- Irgandi Covered Bridge
- Yeşil Cami or the Green Mosque
- Uludağ National Park
- Bursa city walls
- Hot springs;
- Palace and Hipogeum
- Orhan Mosque and complex
- Muradiye complex
- Yeşil complex
- Bayezid I Mosque and complex (külliye)
- Emir Sultan Mosque and complex (külliye)
- Hüdavendigar complex
- Koza Han
- Pirinç Han
- Koca Sinan Paşa complex
- İshak Paşa complex
- Çelik Palas, thermal bath
- Bursa Grand Mosque
- Karacabey Grand Mosque
- Karabaş-i Veli Cultural Center
- Yıldırım Bazaar
- Bursa Archeology Museum
- Bursa City Museum 
- Bursa Atatürk Museum
- Bursa Turkish Architecture Museum
- Islamic Works Museum
- Mudanya Armistice
- İznik Museum
- Cumalıkızık village
- Bursa Zoo and Botanical Garden (Bursa Hayvanat Bahçesi ve Botanik Parkı)
Ulu Cami (The Great Mosque)
Ulu Cami is the largest mosque in Bursa and a landmark of early Ottoman architecture, which carried many elements from the Seljuk architecture. Ordered by Sultan Bayezid I, the mosque was designed and built by architect Ali Neccar in 1396–1400. It is a large and rectangular building, with a total of twenty domes that are arranged in four rows of five, and are supported by 12 columns. Supposedly the twenty domes were built instead of the twenty separate mosques which Sultan Bayezid I had promised for winning the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396. The mosque has two minarets.
Inside the mosque there are 192 monumental wall inscriptions written by the famous calligraphers of that period. There is also a fountain (şadırvan) where worshipers can perform ritual ablutions before prayer; the dome over the şadırvan is capped by a skylight which creates a soft, serene light below; thus playing an important role in the illumination of the large building.
The horizontally spacious and dimly lit interior is designed to feel peaceful and contemplative. The subdivisions of space formed by multiple domes and pillars create a sense of privacy and even intimacy. This atmosphere contrasts with the later Ottoman mosques (see for example the works of Suleiman the Magnificent's chief architect Mimar Sinan.) The mosques that were built after the conquest of Constantinople (Istanbul) by the Ottoman Turks in 1453, and influenced by the design of the 6th century Byzantine basilica of Hagia Sophia, had increasingly elevated and large central domes, which create a vertical emphasis that is intended to be more overwhelming; in order to convey the divine power of Allah, the majesty of the Ottoman Sultan, and the governmental authority of the Ottoman State.
The city has one professional football club, Bursaspor competing in the top-tier of Turkish football. Bursaspor are the current Super Lig champions, having won the title for the first time in their history in the 2009-10 season. The city has one basketball team in Turkish Basketball League, Tofaş S.K..
Images from Bursa
Twin towns—Sister cities
Bursa has twenty three sister cities. Gyeongsangbuk-do is the latest to become a sister city of Bursa.
- 1855 Bursa earthquake
- Bursa Airport
- Complex of Mehmed I
- List of people from Bursa
- Turkish Statistical Institute
- Şablon hatası:başlık gerekiyor.[dead link]
- "TAYSAD met its members from Bursa". TAYSAD. 2008-02-08. http://www.taysad.org.tr/www/tr/default.asp?x=haber_detay&hid=31. Retrieved 2009-06-28.
- "Bursa'nın İlk 250 Sanayi Kuruluşu". BTSO. 2008. http://www.ilk250.org.tr/document/2008/2008.xls.
- Sütaş Dairy Products
- Tat Food Company
- Uludağ Beverages
- Bursa Metropolitan Municipality Web Site; Sister Cities.
- (İngilizce) Bursa Metropolitan Municipality
- (İngilizce) Bursa Governorship
- (İngilizce) Bursa Kultur AS. (Bursa Metropolitan Municipality)
Şablon:Districts of Turkey Şablon:Metropolitan centers in Turkey
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