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Deli (soldier)[]

 [1][2]Deli Sinan (left) in 1526 fighting a Hungarian knight. 

Detail of a miniature from Süleymanname

Deli ( Ottoman  دلی also Delü  / دلو /, brave, heroic, Daring, Reckless, lunatic, madman ' [1 ][2] ) or Deliler (plural in German delis or Deli was) in the Ottoman Empire name of an individual or of a rider on horseback Association of the Ottoman provincial troops, the foolhardy went off to fight the enemy. Here are the Deli have been mostly intoxicated by opium. [3] The Deli were a mixed group from members of Balkan peoples and the Turks.

Parallel to the notion Deli - probably even earlier - was also the term Delil (plural Deliller ) for the same people and organizations use. He comes from the Arabic meaning in the Ottoman conquest in connection with the wars in Europe leader in terms of scouting. [4]

Table of Contents[]

  [ Hide ] *Military and representative functions

Military and representative functions Edit ][]

Scouts and veterans Edit ][]

[3][4]Deli with fur cap and eagle wings themselves kasteiend, Detail of a miniature fromSurname-i Humayun (1582-1587)[5][6]Deli in dress uniform, printed in 1688 by Melchior Lorichs (* 1526/27, † 1583)[7][8]Deli in typical clothing and weaponry, from the Codex Vindobonensis 8626 (around 1590), by Heinrich Hendrowski (?)

The form of the name Delil captured quite accurately the earliest function. As with location and population of the Balkans trusted scouts and scouts helped the most part, originally derived from the Balkans Delil the Ottoman vanguard and the entire Ottoman army since the 14th Century in the exploration of the terrain and thus in the planning and execution of campaigns.

When the Delil itself under the leadership of a Delilerağası (Aga the Reckless) [5] - similar to the Akıncı - took over the military duties of vanguard and proved to be particularly bold, became common possibly from Delil corrupted, [6] admiration expressing Name Deli by.

In a kind of self-stylization showed the Deli mentioned Delil in the army and the public as schmerzverachtende daredevil. Some took over practices of dervishes, presented by the maltreating her body to flaunt self-mutilation, such as in the elevators on the occasion of the Feast of the Circumcision Şehzade Mehmed, son of Sultan Murat III.

As a Deli to be a successful front fighter, was the basis for promotions and rewards. As evidence of the success of the severed heads of defeated enemies might serve, such as in 1575, the preacher of the Imperial Embassy in Istanbul reported:

[...] Pervāna Deli has appointed Auersberg geköpfft / worn and the head / is Zaim and his grades have improved with him two hundred and fünffzig Thalern / kan Alai or Sansagbeg be [...] . [7 ][8] "

Their largest military effectiveness unfolded the Deli in the 16th and 17 Century. [2] At least until the 18th Century, they were still used as a cavalry as two descriptions of the preparations for war in 1713 and 1736 show:

The Sultan broke to Adrianople to [...] Immediately after his arrival at Adrianople pulled the Beglerbeg of Anatoly with his troops on handsome, ahead of the Courageous and Reckless (Gönüllü and Deli) [...] [9] "

[...] eighty Bosnian Deli, ie, Reckless, gepantzert which first clothed with large wings of eagles, red-forty, forty dressed yellow [...] [10] "

Bodyguard Edit ][]

Deli also functioned until the late 17th Century as a special guard Ottoman dignitaries. [11] The Grand Viziers commanded usually 400 to 500 Deli. Koprulu Mehmed Pasha ,Koprulu Fazil Ahmed Pasha and Koprulu Fazıl Mustafa Pasha to 2,000 such Deli have had a bodyguard, were mounted in the field, in but Constantinople marched on foot in front of the grand vizier accompanied, when he went to the sofa. [12] Their commander was Delibaši (leader of the Deli ). [13]

Accordingly, for example, the Ottoman ambassador joined Kara Mehmet Pasha in 1665 in Vienna:

Then came the Pasha's Deli and Gönüllü, all in neat costume and well armed . [14 ][15] "

On the morning of 14 July 1683, at the start of the Second Siege of Vienna , brought the Delibaši the Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa Pasha , Ahmed Aga, the Viennese as a negotiator for a letter of invitation to surrender and surrender of the city. [16 ][17]

Armament and clothing Edit ][]

Most of the illustrations Deli date from the 16th Century. They are found in Ottoman miniatures and western drawings and prints. Always - even in combat - the pictures show the more representative features of the Deli , so be typed and limited-realistic images.

Typical of the traditional image of the mounted Deli 16th Century fur hat with bird of prey wings or individual feathers and clothing or cap of skins of leopard, wolf, bear, lion or hyena. The Deli are armed with lance and sword, sometimes with a club, and does not carry the Turkish round shield, but in the lower part and the upper part rectangular and oblique cusped sign of the Christian peoples of the Balkans. In contrast to the Akıncı lack the reflex arc with them.

This appearance is also drawn in travelogues of Western visitors to the Ottoman Empire, such as Nicolas de Nicolay (travel from 1551 book: Lyons 1567 and others) [18] ., and Luigi Bassano (1545) [19] report both that they Deli from the Balkans came and themselves in their own language zataznicis (plural) or sataznich (singular) called what today's Serbo-Croatian "zatočnici" or "zatočnik" , ie "Knight" corresponds.

Decline of Deli Edit ][]

Towards the end of the 18th Century, it happened more often that Deli associations were released and found no more use. Their weapons and fighting style did not meet the newer Ottoman military strategies. Under a Delibaschi or in smaller teams then searched their living by robbing and looting sure. This happened, for example, under theDelibaschi Koca, the extensive deli -commanded troops and area of Kütahya terrorized the villages. Similarly unsettled Delibaschi İsmail about 1801 the Konya region and participated in 1803 with his Deli in an uprising against the reorganization of the army, by which the Deli should find no official use more. But only after the Russo-Ottoman War of 1828-1829 , on the Deli had participated yet, succeeded Sultan Mahmud II , to put an end to the gangs. Many Deli fled and sought refuge in Egypt and Syria . SomeDeli could be pacified and Anatolia settle. Last remains of predatory Deli destroyed Esad Pasha, the Vali of Karaman . [2 ][20]

Honorary title and nickname Edit ][]

[9][10]Deli RADIG , the name of the campaign diary of Sultan Suleiman I

Of the actual Deli must distinguish persons in old sources namely the part of the name Deli were called, but did not hold the military and representative functions. Such Deliwas, for example, Deli Hasan Pasha , the end of the 16th Century led an uprising against the Ottoman Empire and the Ottoman army defeated in Tokat. [21]

Even more daring, non-Muslim opponents were sometimes appreciative of the Ottomans Deli called. Thus, in Suleiman I. War Diary an Delü RADIG is mentioned. [22]

See also edit ][]

Sources, References and Notes Edit ][]

  1.  Daniel Goffman: The Ottoman Empire and Early Modern Europe . Cambridge 2004. P 1
  2. ↑ c İsmail Hakkı Uzunçarşılı: Deli. In: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition . Edited by: P. Bearman, Th Bianquis, CE Bosworth, E. van Donzel and WP Heinrichs. Brill, 2009. Brill Online.
  3.  Pierer's Universal-Lexicon, Volume 4 Altenburg, 1858, pp. 817, online at
  4.  Esin Atil: Süleymanname . Including Washington, 1986, p.265
  5.  Glossary of Gerd Frank: The ruler of the Ottomans . Vienna including 1977 Glossary
  6. ↑ David Nicolle : Armies of the Ottoman Turks 1300-1774 . Osprey Publishing, London, 1983, ISBN 0-85045-511-1 , p.14
  7.  Klaus Schwarz: Ottoman Sultan certificates . Studies on recruitment and remuneration of Ottoman military in the time of Murad III. Ed from the estate. by Claudia Roman, Islamic Studies Volume XVII Freiburg, Stuttgart, 1997, p 26
  8. ↑ Zaim (Arabic زعي) = Obrist, see zeamet ; Alaibeg = Beg a train (regiment); Sansagbeg = Sançakbeg
  9.  Joseph Hammer Purgstall: History of the Ottoman Empire . Volume 7, plague, 1831, p 198
  10.  Joseph Hammer Purgstall: History of the Ottoman Empire . Volume 7, plague, 1831, p 456
  11.  Joseph Hammer Purgstall: History of the Ottoman Empire . Volume 7, plague, 1831, p 248
  12.  Meyers Conversation Lexicon Large 6 Edition. 1905-1909, keyword Deli
  13.  Joseph Hammer Purgstall: History of the Ottoman Empire . Volume 10, Pest, 1835, p 434 (main tab with further page numbers)
  14. ↑ In the Realm of the Golden Apple . The Turkish world traveler Evliya Çelebi in the Giaurenland and memorable trip to the city and fortress Vienna anno 1665th Translated, introduced and explained by Richard F. Kreutel. Ottoman historian Vol 2 Graz, Vienna, Cologne, 1963 (2nd edition), pp. 68ff
  15. ↑ Gönüllü = osman.-Turkic. the Courageous
  16.  From: Kara Mustafa in front of Vienna. The diary of the siege of Vienna in 1683, written by the master of ceremonies of the Sublime Porte . Translated by Richard F. Kreutel in Stefan Schreiner (Ed.):The Ottomans in Europe. Memories and reports of Turkish historians . Graz others 1985, p 206
  17. ↑ The Turks before Vienna. Europe and the decision on the Danube in 1683. 82nd Special exhibition of the Historical Museum of the City of Vienna. 5 May to 30 October 1983. Vienna 1983, pp. 115f cat. 12/37 (Fig. p. 117)
  18.  Nicolas de Nicolay: Dans l'empire de Soliman le Magnifique . Edited by Marie-Christine Gomez-Geraud and Stéphane Yerasimos, Paris 1989, pp. 227f
  19.  Luigi Bassano: Costumi et i modes particolari della vita de 'Turchi , Edited by Franz Babinger, Munich, 1963, Journal of 43v and 44r
  20.  AH de Groot: ES ʿ AD PASHA. In: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th Bianquis, CE Bosworth, E. van Donzel and WP Heinrichs. Brill, 2009. Brill Online
  21.  Karen Barkey: Bandits and bureaucrats: the Ottoman route to state centralization. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca et al, 1994, pp. 206f.
  22.  Austrian National Library, Ms. HO50, ruz-name

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