- This article is about Sura al-fatiha. For other uses, see Fatiha Suresi/WP (disambiguation).
|Meaning of the name||The Opener|
|Other names||Umm al-Kitab (Mother of the Book)|
Umm al-Qur'an (Mother of the Qur'an)
Surah al-Hamd (The Praise)
|Time of revelation||Early years of prophethood|
|Number of verses||7|
|Number of Sajdahs||None|
|Number of words||29|
|Number of letters||139|
|Number of Ayats on particular subjects||Praise of God: 3|
Relation between Creator and creatures: 1
Prayer of the humankind: 3
|Listen to Surah Fatiha|
|Origin and development|
|Qur'an and Sunnah|
|Views on the Qur'an|
</span> Sura Al-Fatiha (Arapça: سورة الفاتحة, Sūratu al-Fātihah, "The Opener") is the first chapter of the Muslim holy book, the Qur'an. Its seven verses are a prayer for God's guidance, and stress His lordship and mercy. This chapter has an essential role in daily prayers; Muslims recite the Surah Al-Fatiha seventeen times a day, at the start of each unit of prayer.
Muslims believe that the Qur'an is a revelation from God in the Arabic language. Translations into other languages are considered to be merely superficial "interpretations" of the meanings and not authentic versions of the Qur'an.
1:1 بِسْمِ اللّهِ الرَّحْمـَنِ الرَّحِيم
1:2 الْحَمْدُ للّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِين
1:3 الرَّحمـنِ الرَّحِيم
- Ar raḥmāni r-raḥīm
- The Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.
1:4 مَـالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّين
1:5 إِيَّاك نَعْبُدُ وإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِين
- Iyyāka na'budu wa iyyāka nasta'īn
- To you we worship and to you we turn to in help.
1:6 اهدِنَــــا الصِّرَاطَ المُستَقِيمَ
- Ihdinā ṣ-ṣirāṭ al-mustaqīm
- Show us the straight path,
1:7 صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنعَمتَ عَلَيهِمْ غَيرِ المَغضُوبِ عَلَيهِمْ وَلاَ الضَّالِّين
- Ṣirāṭ al-laḏīna an'amta 'alayhim ġayril maġḍūbi 'alayhim walāḍ ḍāllīn
- The path of those whom Thou hast favoured; Not the (path) of those who earn Thine anger nor of those who go astray.
The first verse, transliterated as "bismillāhir rahmānir rahīm", may be familiar to non-Arabic speakers and non-Muslims because of its ubiquity in Arabic and Muslim societies. This verse appears at the start of every chapter in the Qur'an with the exception of the ninth chapter. The verse is normally said before reciting a chapter or part of a chapter during daily prayer, and also before public proclamations and indeed before many personal and everyday activities in many Arabic and Muslim societies as a way to invoke God's blessing and proclaim one's motives before an undertaking.
The two words "ar rahmān" and "ar rahīm" are often translated in English as "the beneficent" and "the merciful" or "the generous" and "the merciful." They are often also translated as superlatives, for example, "the most generous" and "the most merciful". Grammatically the two words "rahmaan" and "raheem" are different linguistic forms of the triconsonantal root R-H-M, connoting "mercy". (For more information, see the section on root forms in Semitic languages). The form "rahmaan" denotes degree or extent, i.e., "most merciful," while "raheem" denotes time permanence, i.e., "ever merciful".
The second verse's "الحمد الله" ranks as one of the most popular phrases in all of Arabic, being used to express one's well-being, general happiness, or even consolation in a disaster (see Alhamdulillah). The verse is also significant in that it includes a relationship between the two most common names for God in Arabic "الله" and "رب". The first word is a ubiquitous name for God, and the second roughly translates to "Lord." It shares the same root with the Hebrew "rabbi". In some printings of the Qur'an, both words appear in red everywhere in the Qur'an.
The reading of the first word of the fourth verse, translated as "master/king" above, has been the subject of debate. The two main recitations, of the Qur'an, Warsh and Hafs, differ on whether it should be "maliki" with a short "a," which means "king" (Warsh, from Nafi'; Ibn Kathir; Ibn Amir; Abu 'Amr; Hamza), or "māliki" with a long "a," which means "master" or "owner" (Hafs, from Asim, and al-Kisa'i). Both "maliki" and "māliki" derive from the same triconsonantal root in Arabic, M-L-K. Both readings are considered valid by many practitioners, since both can be seen as describing God.
In the seventh verse, hadith inform us that "ġayril maġḍūbi 'alayhim" (those who earned your anger) refers to the Jews, who, according to Allah, abandoned practicing his religion; "walāḍ ḍāllīn" (those who went astray) refers to the Christians, who lost the knowledge and thus deserve less anger.
Islamic scholarly tradition is concerned, amongst other things, with when and where verses and chapters of the Qur'an were revealed to Muhammad - for example, whether a verse was revealed while Muhammad was in Mecca or Medina. According to Ibn Abbas and others, Sura Al-Fatiha is a Meccan sura; according to Abu Hurayrah and others, it is a Medinan sura. The former view is more widely accepted, although some believe that it was revealed in both Mecca and Medina.
This surah is sometimes known in English as "the Exordium". In various Hadith it is described as "the mother of the Book" (Umm al-Kitab) and "the mother of the Qur'an" (Umm al-Qur'an), and "the cure of diseases" ("Sura-tul-shifa") and said to be the seven verses alluded to in Al-Hijr [Qur'an 15:87].
This sura contains 7 verses, 29 words and 139 letters (or 25 and 120, not counting the first verse), although Ibn Kathir says "The scholars say that Al-Fatiha consists of 25 words, and that it contains 113 letters." This is due to different methods of counting letters. Also, since the Qur'an came as an orally recited revelation rather than one written down, there were slightly different methods of spelling, similar to the differences between American English spelling and British English spelling (center vs. centre). AIt falls in the first hizb, and hence the first juz', which are sections of the Qur'an.
|The Qur'an - Sura 1||Next sura:|
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114
Translations, interpretations and commentariesEdit
Because of a hadith which states that "whoever does not recite Surah Al-fatihah in his prayer his prayer is invalid", many Islamic scholars emphasise the importance of this chapter in their commentaries. In practice, this means that Muslims who perform daily prayers according to traditional rules will recite Surah Al-Fatiha at least 17 times a day.
- A very suggestive point in their creed and practice was that "God Almighty never requires anything of man *the doing of which is hard*". Several commandments of the decalogue are shattered by that comforting *alibi*, and the second great command of Jesus goes glimmering. Sociology and secular law may rise above religious precepts or permission. The fact is our Moslem neighbors were really in theory fatalists. Of such events as bloodshed and pillage they said "it was impossible to prevent them for they were all written in the stars ages ago". But a fatalist has no clear ground for distinguishing between right and wrong and for the action of conscience; no real basis for moral judgements and awards.
- By degrees I became quite at home in mosques, which I visited, always with feelings of real reverence, and always meeting a friendly welcome. The preachers would habitually discuss their sermons with me in talks before or after preaching, and I came to understand the language used essentially as well as English. One day a friendly caller asked me to explain the Christian theory of the divinity of Jesus, saying courteously his object was not to make me deny his divinity, but if possible for me to make him confess that divinity. Their thought of the Son of God was habitually sensual and unworthy of the Supreme Being, as their thought of human life and conduct was low and unworthy of children of God. The Apostle John said, "he that hath not the Son hath not the Father".
- Mosque worship was always highly, absorbingly impressive. A thousand men (no women) standing shoulder to shoulder, breast to back, in solid phalanx, the voice of the *muezzin* rings out,--all are erect; again the voice, every man on his knees with his forehead touching the floor; another call, and again the erect position. Mosque ceremonies always seemed to me very real worship and in my place I shared as truly as I could do. I studied the first Sura of the Koran carefully and could use it in English as a prayer of my own, but I never reached a point where a Mohammedan would authorize me to use it in my worship. Translation into Turkish was taboo.
- George White Merzifon Amerikan Kolejinin Misyoner Papazı (Fatiha suresini kendi duaları arasına aldığına dair eserinden alıntıdır. Türkçeye Fatihanın tercümesi Muhammediler için tabu idi, diyor.Kur'an tercüme edilebilir mi? Asla ... Elmalı Hamdi Yazır yorumu (Bakınız: Adventuring with Anatolia College)
- ↑ (Verse 1:7) Narrated by ‘Adi bin Hâtim رضي الله عنه: I asked Allâh’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم , about the Statement of Allâh: 1. " غير المغضوب عليهم Ghairil-maghdûbi ‘alaihim (not the way of those who earned Your Anger)," he صلى الله عليه وسلم replied "They are the Jews". And 2. ولا الضالين Walad dâllîn (nor of those who went astray)," he صلى الله عليه وسلم replied: "The Christians, and they are the ones who went astray" - this hadith is quoted by At-Tirmidhi and Musnad Abu Dâwûd.
- ↑ http://www.qurancomplex.com/Quran/Targama/Targama.asp?t=eng&l=eng
- ↑ http://sharing4islamic.multiply.com/journal/item/80/The_sweetness_of_Surah_Al_Fatiha-the_opening