ALMORAVIDES  (properly Murdbtis, the name being corrupted 
through the Spanish), a Berber horde from the Sahara which, 
in the nth century, founded the fourth dynasty hi Morocco. 
By this dynasty the Moorish  empire was extended over Tlemcen  
and a great part of Spain and Portugal. The name is derived 
from the Arab. Murabit , a religious ascetic  (see MARABOUT ). 
The most powerful of the invading tribes was the Lam^una 
(" veiled men ") from the upper Niger , whose best-known 
representatives now are the Tuareg . They had been converted 
to Mahommedanism in the early times of the Arab conquest, 
but their knowledge of Islam did not go much beyond the 
formula of the creed  " there is no god but God, and Mahomet is 
the apostle of God," and they were ignorant of the law. About 
the year 1040 or a little earlier, one of their chiefs, Yahya ibn Ibrahim , made the pilgrimage to Mecca. On his way home he 
attended the teachers  of the mosque at Kairawan , in Tunisia, 
who soon learnt from him that his people knew little of the 
religion they were supposed to profess, and that though his
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