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Id ul-Adha (‘Īdu l-’Aḍḥā)
Official name Arapça: عيد الأضحى
‘Īdu l-’Aḍḥā
Also called Festival of Sacrifice,
Sacrifice Feast
Type Islamic
Significance Commemoration of Ibrahim's (Abraham's) willingness to sacrifice his son Ishmael for Allah.
Marks the end of the Pilgrimage to sundown, and ask God for forgiveness.
Begins 10 Dhu al-Hijjah
Ends 13 Dhu al-Hijjah
Observances Prayer, sacrificing a goat, sheep, cow or a camel, giving to poor people as a gift.

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Dosya:Eidpakistan.jpg

Şablon:FixBunching Eid al-Adha (Arapça: عيد الأضحى‘Īdu l-’Aḍḥā) "Festival of Sacrifice" or "Greater Eid" is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide to commemorate the willingness of Abraham (Ibrahim) to sacrifice his son Ishmael (Ismael) as an act of obedience to God, but instead was able to sacrifice a ram (by God's command).[1] Eid is also about spending time with family and friends, sacrifice, and thanksgiving for being able to afford food and housing. In traditional or agrarian settings, each family would sacrifice a domestic animal, such as a sheep, goat, cow, or camel, by slaughter (though some contemporary Muslims do not sacrifice an animal as part of their observance, it is still a very popular tradition, even in Muslim communities in Europe). The meat would then be divided into three equal parts to be distributed to others. The family eats one third, another third is given to other relatives, friends or neighbours, and the other third is given to the poor as a gift.

Eid al-Adha is the latter of two Eid festivals celebrated by Muslims, whose basis comes from Sura 2 (Al-Baqara) ayah 196 in the Qur'an.[2] Like Eid ul-Fitr, Eid al-Adha begins with a short prayer followed by a sermon (khuṭbah).

Eid al-Adha is celebrated annually on the 10th day of the month of Dhu al-Hijjah (ذو الحجة) of the lunar Islamic calendar. Eid al-Adha celebrations start after the Hajj, the annual pilgrimage to Mecca in Saudi Arabia by Muslims worldwide, descend from Mount Arafat. The date is approximately 70 days after the end of the month of Ramadan. Ritual observance of the holiday lasts until sunset of the 13th day of Dhu al-Hijjah.[3]

Other namesEdit

The Arabic term "Festival of Sacrifice", ‘Īd ul-’Aḍḥā, was borrowed as a unit into Indic languages such as Hindi, Urdu, Gujarati and Bengali and Austronesian languages such as Malay and Indonesian.

Another Arabic word for "sacrifice" is Qurbān (Arapça: قربان‎), which is used in Dari Persian - Afghanistan and Iranian dialect of Persian as Eyde Ghorbân عید قربان, and in Tajik Persian as Иди Қурбон (Idi Qurbon), into Kazakh as Құрбан айт (Qurban ayt), into Uyghur as Qurban Heyit, and also into various Indic languages. Other languages combined the Arabic word qurbān with local terms for "festival", as in Kurdish (Cejna Qurbanê[4]), Pashto (Kurbaneyy Akhtar), Chinese (古尔邦节 Gúěrbāng Jié), Malay and Indonesian (Hari Raya Korban, Qurbani), and Turkish (Kurban Bayramı). The Turkish term was later used in other languages such as Azeri (Qurban Bayramı), Tatar (Qorban Bäyräme), Bosnian and Croatian (Kurban-bajram), Serbian (Курбан бајрам), Russian (Курбан байрам).

Another Arabic name, ‘Īd ul-Kabīr (عيد الكبير `Īd al-Kabīr), meaning "Greater Eid/Festival" (the "Lesser Eid" being Eid ul-Fitr[5]), is used in Yemen, Syria, and North Africa (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt). The term was borrowed directly into French as Aïd el-Kebir. Translations of "Big Eid" or "Greater Eid" are used in Pashto لوی اختر Loy Akhtar, Kashmiri Baed Eid, Hindi and Urdu Baṛā Īd, Malayalam Bali Perunnal, and Tamil Peru Nāl.

Another name refers to the fact that the holiday occurs after the culmination of the Hajj (حج), or pilgrimage to Mecca (Makka). Such names are used in Malay and Indonesian (Hari Raya Haji "Hajj celebration day", Lebaran Haji), and in Tamil Hajji Peru Nāl.

In Urdu-speaking areas, the festival is also called بقرعید Baqra Īd or Baqrī Īd, stemming either from the Arabic baqarah "heifer" or the Urdu word baqrī for "goat", as cows and goats are among the traditionally sacrificed animals. That term was also borrowed into other languages, such as Tamil Bakr Eid Peru Nāl.

Other local names include 宰牲节 Zǎishēng Jié ("Slaughter-livestock Festival") in Chinese, Tfaska Tamoqqart in the Berber language of Djerba, Tabaski or Tobaski in West African languages,[6]Babbar Sallah in Nigerian languages, and ciida gawraca in Somali.

Eid-al-Adha has other popular names across the Muslim world. The name is often simply translated into the local language, such as English Festival of Sacrifice, German Opferfest, Dutch Offerfeest, Romanian Sărbătoarea Sacrificiului and Hungarian Áldozati ünnep.

BackgroundEdit

Four thousand years ago, the valley of Mecca was a dry and uninhabited place. According to Islamic history, Abraham was instructed to bring Hagar (Hāǧar) and their child Ishmael (Ismā'īl) to Arabia from the land of Palestine by God's command.

As Abraham was ready to return to Palestine, Hagar asked him, "Who ordered you to leave us here"? When Abraham replied: "Allah" (God), Hagar said, "then Allah will not forget us; you can go". Although Abraham had left a large quantity of food and water with Hagar and Ishmael, the supplies quickly ran out and within a few days the two were suffering from hunger and dehydration.

According to the story, a desperate Hagar ran up and down between two hills called Al-Safa and Al-Marwah seven times, trying to find water. Finally, she collapsed beside her baby Ishmael and prayed to God for deliverance. Ishmael struck his foot on the ground, causing a spring of water to gush forth from the earth. Other accounts have the angel Gabriel (Jibril) striking the earth and causing the spring to flow. With this secure water supply, known as the Zamzam Well, they were not only able to provide for their own needs, but were also able to trade water with passing nomads for food and supplies. When Abraham returned from Palestine to check on his family, he was amazed to see them running a profitable well.

Abraham was told by God to build a house dedicated to him adjacent to Hagar's well (the Zamzam Well). Abraham and Ishmael constructed a small stone structure—the Kaaba—which was to be the gathering place for all who wished to strengthen their faith in God. As the years passed, Ishmael was blessed with Prophethood (Nubuwwah) and gave the nomads of the desert his message of surrender to God. After many centuries, Mecca became a thriving city and a major center for trade, thanks to its reliable water source, the well of Zamzam.

One of the main trials of Abraham's life was to face the command of God to devote his dearest possession, his only son. Upon hearing this command, he prepared to submit to God's will. During this preparation, when Satan (Shaitan) tempted Abraham and his family, Hagar and Ishmael drove Satan away by throwing pebbles at him. To remember this rejection of Satan, stones are thrown during Hajj.

Abraham had shown that his love for his Lord superseded all others: that he would lay down his own life or the lives of those dear to him in order to submit to God. Muslims commemorate this act of sacrifice during Eid al-Adha.

The HijrahEdit

No longer safe in Mecca, Muhammad, in the year 622 traveled to Medina (lit. the city) with 1,400 of his followers. This is considered as the first 'pilgrimage' in Islam, seeking to re-establish the religious traditions of Abraham, as he believed they were originally practiced.[7]

The Takbir and other ritualsEdit

The Takbir is recited from the dawn of the tenth of Dhu al-Hijjah to the thirteenth, and consists of:[8]

Allāhu akbar, Allāhu akbar, Allāhu akbar الله أكبر الله أكبر الله أكبر
lā ilāha illā Allāh لا إله إلا الله
Allāhu akbar, Allāhu akbar الله أكبر الله أكبر
wa li-illāhil-ḥamd ولله الحمد
Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest,
There is no deity but Allah
Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest
and to Allah goes all praise

Variation

Allāhu akbar, Allāhu akbar الله أكبر الله أكبر
lā ilāha illā Allāh لا إله إلا الله
wa Allāhu akbar, Allāhu akbar والله أكبر الله أكبر
wa li-illāhil-ḥamd ولله الحمد
Alḥamdulillāh `alā mā hadānā, wa lahul-shukru `ala mā awlānā الحمدلله على ما هدانا و له الشكر على ما اولانا
Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest,
There is no deity but Allah
and Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest
and to Allah goes all praise, (We) sing the praises of Allah because He has shown us the Right Path. (We) gratefully thank Him because He takes care of us and looks after our interests.

Variation:

Allāhu akbar, Allāhu akbar, Allāhu akbar الله أكبر الله أكبر الله أكبر
lā ilāha illā Allāh لا إله إلا الله
Allāhu akbar, Allāhu akbar الله أكبر الله أكبر
wa li-illāhil-ḥamd ولله الحمد
Allāhu akbar kabīra, wal ḥamdu lillāhi kathīra, wa subḥāna Allāhi bukratan wa aṣīlā الله أكبر كبيرا والحمد لله كثيرا وسبحان الله بكرة وأصيلا
lā ilāha illā Allāh waḥdah(i) لا اله إلا الله وحده
Ṣadaqa wa`dah, wa naṣara abdah, wa 'a`azza jundahu wa ḥazama al-aḥzaba waḥdah صدق وعده ونصر عبده وأعز جنده وهزم الأحزاب وحده
lā ilāha illā Allāh لا إله إلا الله
walā na`budu illā iyyāh ولا نعبد إلا إياه
Mukhliṣīn lahu ud-dīn wa law kariha al kāfirūn مخلصين له الدين ولو كره الكافرون
Allāhumma ṣallī `alā Sayyidinā Muḥammad, wa `alā āla Sayyidinā Muḥammad, wa `alā aṣḥabi Sayyidinā Muḥammad, wa `alā anṣāri Sayyidinā Muḥammad, wa `alā azwāji Sayyidinā Muḥammad, wa `alā ḏurriyyati Sayyidinā Muḥammadin wa sallim taslīman kathīra اللهم صل على سيدنا محمد وعلى آل سيدنا محمد وعلى أصحاب سيدنا محمد وعلى أنصار سيدنا محمد وعلى أزواج سيدنا محمد وعلى ذرية سيدنا محمد وسلم تسليما كثيرا
Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest,
There is no deity but Allah
Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest
and to Allah goes all praise
Allah is the Greatest, all Praise is due to Him, And Glory to Allah, eventide and in the morning
There is no god, but Allah the Unique
He has fulfilled His Promise, and made Victorious His worshipper, and made Mighty His soldiers and defeated the confederates
There is no deity but Allah
He alone we worship
With sincere and exclusive devotion, even though the infidels hate it
O Allah, have Mercy on our Prophet Muhammad, and on the family of our Prophet Muhammad, and on the Companions of our Prophet Muhammad, and on the Helpers of our Prophet Muhammad, and on the wives of our Prophet Muhammad, and on the offspring of our Prophet Muhammad, and bestow upon them much peace

Traditions and practicesEdit

Men, women, and children are expected to dress in their finest clothing to perform Eid prayer (ṣalātu l-`Īdi) in a large congregation is an open area or mosque. Muslims who can afford to do so sacrifice their best domestic animals (usually sheep, but also camels, cows and goats) as a symbol of Abraham's sacrifice. The sacrificed animals, called uḍiyyah (Arapça: أضحية‎, also known as "al-qurbāni"), have to meet certain age and quality standards or else the animal is considered an unacceptable sacrifice. Generally, sacrificial animals must be at least one year of age.

The regular charitable practices of the Muslim community are demonstrated during Eid al-Adha by the concerted effort to see that no impoverished person is left without sacrificial food during these days.

During Eid al-Adha, distributing meat amongst the people, chanting Takbir out loud before the Eid prayer on the first day, and after prayers throughout the four days of Eid are considered essential parts of the festival. In some countries, families that do not own livestock can make a contribution to a charity that will provide meat to those who are in need.

Eid al-Adha in the Gregorian calendarEdit

While Eid al-Adha is always on the same day of the Islamic calendar, the date on the Gregorian calendar varies from year to year since the Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar and the Gregorian calendar is a solar calendar. The lunar calendar is approximately eleven days shorter than the solar calendar. Each year, Eid al-Adha (like other Islamic holidays) falls on one of two different Gregorian dates in different parts of the world, due to the fact that the boundary of crescent visibility is different from the International Date Line.

The following list shows the official dates of Eid al-Adha for Saudi Arabia as announced by the Supreme Judicial Council. Future dates are calculated according to the Umm al-Qura calendar of Saudi Arabia.[9] The three days after the listed date are also part of the festival. The time before the listed date the pilgrims visit the Mount Arafat and descend from it after sunrise of the listed day. Future dates of Eid al-Adha might face correction 10 days before the festivity, in case of deviant lunar sighting in Saudi Arabia for the start of the month Dhul Hijja.

  • 1420 (Islamic Calendar): March 16, 2000
  • 1421 (Islamic Calendar): March 5, 2001
  • 1422 (Islamic Calendar): February 22, 2002
  • 1423 (Islamic Calendar): February 12, 2003
  • 1424 (Islamic Calendar): February 1, 2004
  • 1425 (Islamic Calendar): January 21, 2005
  • 1426 (Islamic Calendar): January 10, 2006
  • 1427 (Islamic Calendar): December 31, 2006
  • 1428 (Islamic Calendar): December 20, 2007
  • 1429 (Islamic Calendar): December 8, 2008
  • 1430 (Islamic Calendar): November 27, 2009
  • 1431 (Islamic Calendar): November 16, 2010 (calculated)
  • 1432 (Islamic Calendar): November 6, 2011 (calculated)
  • 1433 (Islamic Calendar): October 26, 2012 (calculated)
  • 1434 (Islamic Calendar): October 15, 2013 (calculated)
  • 1435 (Islamic Calendar): October 4, 2014 (calculated)
  • 1436 (Islamic Calendar): September 23, 2015 (calculated)
  • 1437 (Islamic Calendar): September 11, 2016 (calculated)
  • 1438 (Islamic Calendar): September 1, 2017 (calculated)
  • 1439 (Islamic Calendar): August 21, 2018 (calculated)
  • 1440 (Islamic Calendar): August 11, 2019 (calculated)
  • 1441 (Islamic Calendar): July 31, 2020 (calculated)
  • 1442 (Islamic Calendar): July 23, 2021 (calculated)

NotesEdit

  1. Diversity Calendar: Eid al-Adha University of Kansas Medical Center
  2. Qur'an 2:196
  3. Mittwoch, E. "ʿĪd al- Aḍḥā." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman , Th. Bianquis , C.E. Bosworth , E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2010. Brill Online. Brill Online
  4. Serokê Kurdistanê bi mesajekê cejna Qurbanê li Kurdistaniyan pîroz kir
  5. Issues in Islam, All About Eid By Greg Noakes
  6. "People of Africa: Wolof People". African Holocaust Society. http://www.africanholocaust.net/peopleofafrica.htm#wolof. Retrieved 2007-01-04. 
  7. History of the Hajj
  8. Eid Takbeers - Takbir of Id
  9. The Umm al-Qura Calendar of Saudi Arabia

External linksEdit

Şablon:Muslimholidaysar:عيد الأضحى az:Qurban Bayramı bn:ঈদুল আজহা bs:Kurban bajram ca:Festa del sacrifici cs:Íd al-adhá da:Eid ul-Adha de:Islamisches Opferfest et:‘Īd al-Aḑḩā el:Eid ul-Adha es:Eid al-Adha eo:Eid ul-Adha fa:عید قربان fr:Aïd el-Kabir ko:이드 알 아드하 hi:ईद-उल-जुहा hr:Kurban-bajram id:Idul Adha it:Id al-adha he:חג הקורבן jv:Idul Adha kn:ಬಕ್ರೀದ್ kk:Құрбан айт sw:Idd el Hajj ku:Cejna Qurbanê hu:Áldozati ünnep mk:Курбан Бајрам ml:ഈദുൽ അദ്‌ഹ arz:عيد الاضحى ms:Hari Raya Aidiladha nl:Offerfeest ja:イード・アル=アドハー no:Id ul-Adha nn:Id ul-adha pl:Id al-Adha pt:Eid ul-Adha ru:Курбан-байрам sq:Kurban Bajrami simple:Eid al-Adha sl:Kurbanbajram sr:Курбан-бајрам sh:Kurban-bajram su:Idul Adha fi:Id al-Adha sv:Eid Al-Adha tl:Eid al-Adha ta:தியாகத் திருநாள் tt:Qorban bäyräme te:ఈదుల్ అజ్ హా tg:Иди Қурбон tr:Kurban Bayramı uk:Курбан-байрам ur:بقرعید ug:قۇربان ھېيت wa:Fiesse do moton wo:Bisub Tabaski yo:Ọdún Iléyá diq:Eydê/Roşanê Qurbani zh:古尔邦节

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