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This article is about the city of Mersin, see Mersin Province, (named İçel province until 2002), for information about the surrounding area.

Mersin
—  City  —
Mersin is located in Turkey
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Mersin
</div>Location of Mersin within Turkey.
Coordinates: 36°48′N 34°38′E / 36.8°N 34.633°E / 36.8; 34.633Coordinates: 36°48′N 34°38′E / 36.8°N 34.633°E / 36.8; 34.633
Country Flag of Turkey Türkiye
Region Mediterranean
Province Mersin
Government
 - Mayor Macit Özcan (CHP)
Area
 - City Şablon:İnfobox settlement/permi2km2
Elevation 100 m (328 ft)
Population (2009)
 - City 888.803
 - Density 466 m (1.529 ft)
 Urban 842.230
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 33XXX
Area code(s) (+90) 324
Licence plate 33
Website Mersin

Mersin (Ancient Greek: Ζεφύριον, Zephyrion) is a large city and a busy port on the Mediterranean coast of southern Turkey and is the capital of the Mersin Province. It is part of Adana-Mersin Metropolitan Area and lies on the west part of Çukurova, a geographical, economical and cultural region. According to Evliya Çelebi, the city is named after the Mersinoğullari tribe; another theory is that it is derived from the myrtle (Greek: μύρτος) which grows abundantly in the region.[1] Mersin is so important for Turkey's economy also Turkey's biggest port is in Mersin

Slogan:The Pearl of Mediterranean (Turkish: Akdeniz'in İncisi)

HistoryEdit

This coast has been inhabited since the 9th millennium BC. Excavations by John Garstang of the hill of Yumuktepe have revealed 23 levels of occupation, the earliest dating from ca. 6300 BC. A fortification was put up around 4500 BC, but the site appears to have been abandoned between 3200 BC and 1200 BC.

In the following centuries the city became a part of many states and civilizations including the Hittites, Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, the Macedonians of Alexander the Great, Seleucids, Lagids. During the Ancient Greek period, the city bore the name Zephyrion (Greek: Ζεφύριον[2]) and was mentioned by numerous ancient authors. Apart from its natural harbor and its strategic position along the trade routes of southern Anatolia, the city profited from trade in molybdenum (white lead) from the neighbouring mines of Coreyra. Ancient sources attributed the best molybdenum to the city, which also minted its own coins.

Later, the area became a part of the Roman province of Cilicia, which had its capital at Tarsus, while nearby Mersin was the major port. The city, whose name was Latinized to Zephyrium, was renamed as Hadrianopolis in honor of the Roman emperor Hadrian.

In 395 the Roman Empire was split in two and this area fell into the half ruled by Byzantium (later Constantinople), which became the centre of trade in this part of the world, drawing investments and trade, and causing Mersin to lose its attractiveness.

The city was Christianized early; and was the see of a bishop. Le Quien (Oriens christianus, II, 883) names four bishops of Zephyrium: Aerius, present at the Council of Constantinople in 381; Zenobius, a Nestorian, at the Second Council of Constantinople in 432-434; Hypatius, present at the Council of Chalcedon in 451; and Peter, at the Council in Trullo in 692. The city remains a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church, Zephyriensis; the see has been vacant since 1966.[3]

Then came the Arabs, Egyptian Tulunids, Seljuk Turks, Mongols, Crusaders, Armenians, Mamluks, Anatolian beyliks, and finally the city was conquered by the Ottomans from the Principality of Ramazanoğlu in 1473 and formally annexed by Selim I in 1517.

During the American Civil War, the region became a major supplier of cotton to make up for the high demand due to shortage. Railroads were extended to Mersin in 1866 from where cotton was exported by sea, and the city developed into a major trade center.

In 1918 Mersin was occupied by French and British troops in accord with the Treaty of Sevrès. It was liberated by the Turkish army in 1920. In 1924, Mersin was made a province, and in 1933, Mersin and İçel provinces were joined to form the (greater Mersin) İçel province.

Up until the 1970s Mersin had a population of 580,000 and a classy feel to it, with carriages parading under palm trees. The seafront was all orchards of oranges and lemons, perfect for a quiet stroll, and you could play on the beach. The heart of this tree-lined bourgois establishment were the patisseries along Flamingo road, a name that evokes nostalgia among those who lived here through the 60s and 70s.

Atatürk and Mersin Edit

Atatürk visited Mersin ten times and stayed in Mersin five times. He said, 'Mersin is the most important trade area in Turkey between Turkey and The World'. The 'Atatürk House' (more formally Atatürk Museum) was established there and it is still used as a museum.

Mersin todayEdit

Dosya:126 Mersin.07.2006 resize.JPG

Today, Mersin is a large city spreading out along the coast, with Turkey's second tallest skyscraper[citation needed] (the 52-floor Mertim Tower, which was the tallest skyscraper in Turkey for 13 years between 1987 and 2000, until the completion of the İş Bankası Towers in Istanbul), huge hotels, an opera house, expensive real estate near the sea or up in the hills, and many other modern urban amenities, although still nothing like the long-established nightlife and culture of İstanbul or İzmir. The population of the city is 888 803 (842 230 urban) according to 2009 estimates. The population in the intercity municipalities is shown below[4]

Name of the municipality Population
Akdeniz 284333
Mezitli 135092
Toroslar 231838
Yenişehir 197967

The Metropolitan Municipality is now trying to rescue the sea front with walkways, parks and statues, and there are still palm trees on the roadsides especially where the young generation like to hang out in the cafés and patisseries of smart neighbourhoods such as Pozcu or Çamlıbel. These are established neighbourhoods where there are many well-known shops and restaurants with years of experience and reputations to protect. The city centre is a maze of narrow streets and arcades of little shops and cafes, with young people buzzing around on scooters. The old quarter near the fish market is where you will find the stalls selling tantuni and grilled liver sandwiches.

One of the most distinctive features of the city as a whole is the solar heating panels, they are everywhere, on top of every building.

Turkey now plans to construct its first nuclear power plant some 80 miles west of Mersin[citation needed]. In March 2008, Turkey opened the bidding for the construction of the plant. Environmental groups, such as Greenpeace, oppose this plan[citation needed].

CuisineEdit

The local cuisine is famous, and restaurants specializing on the Mersin Region can be found all over Turkey, and includes specialties such as:

EconomyEdit

The port is the mainstay of Mersin's economy. There are 45 piers, a total port area of Şablon:Convert/m2, with a capacity of 6,000 ships per year.

Adjacent to the port is Mersin Free Zone established in 1986, the first free zone in Turkey, with warehouses, shops, assembly-disassembly, maintenance and engineering workshops, banking and insurance, packing-repacking, labelling and exhibition facilities. The zone is a publicly owned center for foreign investors, close to major markets in the (Middle East, North Africa, East and West Europe, Russian Federation and Central Asia. The trading volume of the free zone was USD 51,8 billion in 2002.

Mersin has highway connections to the north, east and west. Mersin is also connected to the southern railroad. Adana airport is Şablon:Convert/LoffAoffDbSoff.

70% of the male population and 46% of the female population is employed. Unemployment is about 6.7%

Mersin port is an international hub for many vessels routing to European countries.Its now operated by PSA.

Mersin UniversityEdit

Mersin University was founded in 1992 and started teaching in 1993-1994, with 11 faculties, 6 schools and 9 vocational schools. The university has had about 10 thousand graduates, has broadened its current academic staff to more than 2100 academicians, and enrolls 22,000 students.

CultureEdit

Because the city has been a crossroads for centuries the local culture is a medley of civilizations. Mersin has a State Opera and Ballet, the fourth in Turkey after Istanbul, İzmir and Ankara. Mersin International Music Festival was established in 2001, and takes place every October. The photography association Mersin Fotograf Derneği (MFD), is one of the most popular and active cultural organizations in the city. Some cultural activities are sponsored by the İçel sanat kulübü (i.e., Art club of Mersin) There is a great museum in the city centre.

The municipal cemetery is interesting as people of all faiths and denominations can be buried here.

In order to swim in clean water you need to get out of town, perhaps an hour along the coast. The beaches at Kızkalesi, Ayaş, Susanoğlu (app. 50–70 km west) are popular with families while young people prefer Akyar, Yapraklı koy, Narlıkuyu or quieter bays along the coast, some of which are very attractive indeed.

ImagesEdit

International relationsEdit

Twin towns — Sister citiesEdit

Mersin is twinned with:

Notable nativesEdit

  • Karacaoğlan - 16th century folk poet
  • Musa Eroğlu - Composer,musician
  • Cemal Mersinli - (aka Mersinli Cemal Paşa) - General and Ottoman minister of defense
  • Doğan Akça - Artist (painter)
  • Hüseyin Gezer - Artist (sculptor)
  • Etem Çalışkan -Artist (painter)
  • Yavuz Donat - Journalist
  • Haldun Dormen -Theatre & film actor and director
  • Seyhan Kurt - Poet,writer,sociologist
  • Güzide Duran - Model
  • Müfide İlhan - First woman mayor in Turkey in 50's
  • Özdemir İnce - Author
  • Ahmet Kireççi (aka Mersinli Ahmet) - Olympic medalist wrestler
  • Nevit Kodallı - Composer
  • Turhan Oğuzbaş - Poet
  • Ümit Yaşar Oğuzcan - Poet
  • Kayhan Sağlamer - Journalist
  • Fikri Sağlar - Politician ( 4 terms Minister of Culture before 1996)
  • Nevin Yanıt - Female sprinter (European champion in 100 m hurdles.)
  • Atıf Yılmaz - Film director and producer

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. İçel: Mersin- Tarsus- Çamlıyayla- Erdemli- Silifke- Aydıncık- Bozyazı- Anamur- Gülnar- Mut (Kültür, Turizm ve Tanıtım yayınları, 1992), p. 7.
  2. [1] retrieved June 14, 2007
  3. http://www.catholic-hierarchy.org/diocese/d2z15.html
  4. [2]

External linksEdit

Şablon:Wikisource1913CatholicEnc

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