- This article is about geographical region. For Cradle of Filth album, see Midian (album). For the Biblical character, see Midian (son of Abraham).
Midian (Şablon:Lang-he), Madyan (Arabic مدين), or Madiam (Greek Μαδιάμ, Μαδιανίτης for a Midianite) is a geographical place and a people mentioned in the Bible and in the Qur'an. It is believed to be in northwest Arabia on the east shore of the Gulf of Aqaba and the northern Red Sea. Some scholars say it was not a geographical area but a league of tribes.
The modern Hebrew pronunciation, "Midyan", is the result of a normal vowel shift changing an "a" sound to an "i" sound (compare Miryam in Hebrew versus Mariam in Greek or Maryam in Arabic).
Geographical location and cultureEdit
Establishing the precise location of Midian is difficult, but the Seventh-day Adventist Bible Dictionary suggests that it may have extended from the eastern shores of the Sinai peninsula to the deserts east of the Gulf of Aqabah, Edom and Moab.. The Midianites were nomadic shepherds who traveled in small bands with their goats and sheep and camels in the dry season and moved into larger groups during the lambing or wet season. They lived in tents of goat hair and ate mostly bread, baked in hot charcoals and sand, and dairy products. Their clothing was loose and baggy, both sexes wore tunics, those of the women being thinner with slits running through the sides and a veil covered the head.
The Midianites through their apparent religio-political connection with the Moabites are thought to have worshipped a multitude of gods, including Baal-peor and the Queen of Heaven, Ashteroth. An Egyptian temple of Hathor at Timna` continued to be used during the Midianite occupation of the site. However, whether Hathor or some other deity was the object of devotion during this period is impossible to ascertain.
Historians of the ancient near east offer a theory that indicates that the worship of Yahweh originated in pre-Israelite peoples of the Levant region, specifically in Midian. The Hebrew Bible mentions that Moses first encountered Yahweh as a burning bush in Midian. One hypothesis suggests that rebelling Canaanites, in an effort to create a fresh and uncontaminated national myth, perused the sagas of a minor group of Canaanite slave refugees from Egypt, acquiring the deity Yahweh from the Shasu people of Midian. An Egyptian inscription also makes reference to the Shasu people of Midian by using the name Yahua (Yahweh).
- God instructs Moses to collect an army and destroy Midian 
- Israel is oppressed by Midian during the time of the Judges. Gideon is called by God to deliver Israel from Midian's armies.
In the Qur'anEdit
The people of Midian are also mentioned extensively in the Qur'an, where the name appears in Arabic as Madyan.
Sura 9, verse 70 says "Has not the story reached them of those before them? - The people of Nuh (Noah), 'Ad, and Thamud, the people of Ibrahim (Abraham), the dwellers [literally, comrades] of Madyan (Midian) and the cities overthrown [i.e. the people to whom Lūt (Lot) preached], to them came their Messengers with clear proofs. So it was not Allah (God, in Arabic) Who wronged them, but they used to wrong themselves."
In Sura 7 (Al-A`rāf) Madyan is mentioned as one of several peoples who were warned by prophets to repent lest judgment fall on them. The story of Madyan is the last, coming after that of Lot preaching to his people (referring to the destruction of the Cities of the Plain. Madyan was warned by Shu`ayb to repent of using false weights and measures and lying in wait along the road. But they rejected Shu`ayb, and consequently were destroyed by a tremor (rajfa, v. 91). Abdullah Yusuf Ali in his commentary (1934) writes, "The fate of the Madyan people is described in the same terms as that of the Thamūd in verse 78 above. An earthquake seized them by night, and they were buried in their own homes, no longer to vex Allah's earth. But a supplementary detail is mentioned in [Qur'an] 26:189, 'the punishment of a day of overshadowing gloom,' which may be understood to mean a shower of ashes and cinders accompanying a volcanic eruption. Thus a day of terror drove them into their homes, and the earthquake finished them." (The volcano Hala-'l Badr is in Madyan.)
- ↑ Dever, William G. Who were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come From? William B Eerdmans Publishing Co (24 May 2006) ISBN 978-0802844163 p.34
- ↑ The Miracles of Exodus by Colin Humphreys, 2003, ISBN 0-8264-6952-3
- ↑ Bromiley Geoffrey W . The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1996 ISBN 978-0802837837 p.350
- ↑ Seventh-day Adventist Bible Dictionary, Midian, Review & Herald Publishing Association (Washington D.C., USA) 1960
- ↑ Genesis 36:35; Numbers 22:4,7; Numbers 25:1,6
- ↑ Qur'an, Al-Araf, 7:85
- ↑ Genesis 37:28
- ↑ Exodus 2:11-15
- ↑ Exodus 2:21
- ↑ Numbers 31:1
- ↑ Judges 6
- Clines, David and John Sawyer, eds. "Midian, Moab and Edom: The History and Archaeology of Late Bronze and Iron Age Jordan and North-West Arabia". Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, Supplement Series, No. 24. Sheffield Academic Press, 1983.
- Singer, Isidore and M. Seligsohn. "Midian and Midianites". Jewish Encyclopedia. Funk and Wagnalls, 1901–1906, which cites to:
Kelimenin geçtiği ayetlerEdit
Elmalı Meali (Orijinali)
İngilizce Meali (M. Pickthall )
[[وَإِلَى مَدْيَنَ أَخَاهُمْ شُعَيْبًا قَالَ يَاقَوْمِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ مَا لَكُمْ مِنْ إِلَهٍ غَيْرُهُ قَدْ جَاءَتْكُمْ بَيِّنَةٌ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ فَأَوْفُوا الْكَيْلَ وَالْمِيزَانَ وَلَا تَبْخَسُوا النَّاسَ أَشْيَاءَهُمْ وَلَا تُفْسِدُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ بَعْ]]
Medyen kavmine de kardeşleri Şuayb Peygamberi: Ey kavmim, dedi: Allaha kulluk edin, ondan başka bir ilâhınız daha yok, işte size rabbınızdan bir beyyine geldi, artık kileyi, teraziyi tam tutun, nâsın eşyasına haksızlık etmeyin, yer yüzünü ıslahından sonra yine fesada vermeyin, bana inanırsanız bu söylediklerim sizin için hayırlıdır
Medyen'e de kardeşleri Şuayb'ı (gönderdik): "Ey kavmim, dedi, Allah'a kulluk edin, sizin O'ndan başka bir ilâhınız yoktur. Size Rabbinizden açık bir delil geldi: Ölçüyü ve tartıyı tam yapın, insanların eşyalarını eksik vermeyin, düzeltildikten sonra yeryüzünde bozgunculuk yapmayın; eğer inanan (insan)lar iseniz, böylesi sizin için daha iyidir!"
And unto Midian (We sent) their brother, Shueyb. He said: O my people! Serve Allah. Ye have no other God save Him. Lo! a clear proof hath come unto you from your Lord; so give full measure and full weight and wrong not mankind in their goods, and work not confusion in the earth after the fair ordering thereof. That will be better for you, if ye are believers.