- For other uses, see Omar.
|Caliph Umar's empire at its peak, 644.|
|Reign||23 August 634–7 November 644|
|Died||7 November 644|
|Place of death||Medina, Arabia|
Umar (Şablon:Lang-ar-at, c. 586–590 – 644) c. 2 Nov. (Dhu al-Hijjah 26, 23 Hijri) , was a great admirer and friend of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, secondly only to the greatest companion of Prophet, Abu Bakr, referred to as "Al-Siddeeq" [The Believer]. He became the second Muslim ruler after Muhammad's death and ruled for 10 years.
Converting to Islam in the 6th year after Muhammad's first revelation, he spent 18 years in companionship of Muhammad. He succeeded Caliph Abu Bakr on 23 August 634 as the second Caliph, and played a significant role in Islam. Under Umar the Islamic empire expanded at an unprecedented rate ruling the whole Sassanid Persian Empire and more than two thirds of the Eastern Roman Empire. His legislative abilities, his firm political and administrative control over a rapidly expanding empire and his brilliantly coordinated multi-prong attacks against the Sassanid Persian Empire that resulted in the conquest of the Persian empire in less than two years, marked his reputation as a great political and military leader. He was killed by a Persian captive.
Sunni Muslims view him as the Second Rashidun and know him as Farooq the great. On the other hand, Shia Muslims view him doing Coup d'état against Ali's right to successorship and directly being responsible for Fatima's death.
Umar was born in Mecca to the Banu Adi clan, which was responsible for arbitrations among the tribes. His father was Khattab ibn Nufayl and his mother was Hantammah daughter of Khattab, from the tribe of Banu Makhzum. He is said to have belonged to a middle class family. In his youth he used to tend to his father’s camels in the plains near Mecca. His father was famed for his intelligence among his tribe. He was a middle class merchant and is believed to be a ruthless man and emotional polytheist who often treated Umar badly. As obvious from Umar's own statement regarding his father during his later political rule, Umar said, "My father Al-Khittab was a ruthless man. He used to make me work hard; if I didn't work he used to beat me and he used to work me to exhaustion."
Despite literacy being uncommon in pre-Islamic Arabia, Umar learned to read and write in his youth. Though not a poet himself, he developed a love for poetry and literature. According to the tradition of Quraish, while still in his teenage years, Umar learned martial arts, horse riding and wrestling. He was tall and physically powerful and was soon to became a renowned wrestler. Umar was also a gifted orator, and due to his intelligence and overwhelming personality, he succeeded his father as an arbitrator of conflicts among the tribes.
In addition, Umar followed the traditional profession of Quraish. He became a merchant and had several journeys to Rome and Persia, where he is said to have met the various scholars and analyzed the Roman and Persian societies closely. However, as a merchant he is believed to have never been successful. Drinking alcohol was very common among the Quraish, and Umar was also fond of drinking in his pre-Islamic days.
During Muhammad's eraEdit
Umar's hostility to IslamEdit
In 610 Muhammad started delivering the message of Islam. Umar, alongside others in Makkah, opposed Islam and threatened to kill Muhammad. He resolved to defend the traditional, polytheistic religion of Arabia. He was most adamant and cruel in opposing Muhammad and very prominent in persecuting the Muslims. Umar was the first man who resolved that Muhammad had to be murdered in order to finish Islam. Umar firmly believed in the unity of the Quraish and saw the new faith of Islam as a cause of division and discord among the Quraish.
Due to the persecution at the hands of the Quraish, Muhammad ordered his followers to migrate to Abyssinia. As a small group of Muslims migrated Umar felt worried about the future unity of the Quraish and decided to have Muhammad assassinated.
Converting to IslamEdit
Umar converted to Islam in 616, one year after the Migration to Abyssinia. The story was recounted in Ibn Ishaq's Sīrah; On the way to murder Muhammad, Umar met his best friend Nu'aim ibn Abdi 'Allah who had secretly been converted to a Muslim but he did not tell Umar anything about it. When Umar told him that he was going to kill Muhammad he was afraid. He knew Umar will attempt what he said. So just to divert his attention he told him to set his own house in order first, as his sister and her husband had converted to Islam. Upon arriving at her house, Umar found his sister and brother-in-law Saeed bin Zaid (Umar's cousin), reciting the verses of the Qur'an(Surah Taha). He started quarreling with his brother-in-law . When his sister came to rescue her husband, he also started quarreling with her. Yet still they kept on saying "you may kill us but we will not give up Islam". Upon hearing these words, Umar slapped his sister so hard that she fell to the ground bleeding from her mouth. When he saw what he did to his sister now, out of guilt he calmed down and asked his sister to give him what she was reciting. She gave him the paper on which was written the verses of the chapter Ta-Ha. He was so struck by the beauty of the verses that he accepted Islam that day. He then went to Muhammad with the same sword he intended to kill him with and accepted Islam in front of him and his companions. Umar was 27 when he accepted Islam. Following his conversion, Umar went to inform the chief of Quraish, Amr ibn Hishām, about his acceptance of Islam. According to one account, Umar thereafter openly prayed at the Kaaba as the Quraish chiefs, Amr ibn Hishām and Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, reportedly watched in anger. This further helped the Muslims to gain confidence in practicing Islam openly. At this stage Umar even challenged anyone who dared to stop the Muslims from praying, although no one dared to interfere with Umar when he was openly praying.
Umar’s conversion to Islam gave power to the Muslims and the faith in Mecca. It was after this that Muslims offered prayers openly in Masjid al-Haram for the first time. Abdullah bin Masoud said:
|« Umar's embracing Islam was our victory, his migration to Medina was our success and his reign a blessing from Allah, we didn't offer prayers in Al-Haram Mosque until Umar accepted Islam, when he accepted Islam Quraish were compelled to let us pray in the Mosque. »</div>|
All these things earned Umar the title of Farooq, meaning one who makes a difference.
Umar's Title of Al FarooqEdit
Mujahid, on the authority of Ibn Abbas related that he had asked 'Umar bin Al-Khattab why he had been given the epithet of Al-Farooq (he who distinguishes truth from falsehood), he replied: After I had embraced Islam, I asked the Prophet : 'Aren't we on the right path here and Hereafter?' The Prophet answered: 'Of course you are! I swear by Allâh in Whose Hand my soul is, that you are right in this world and in the hereafter.' I, therefore, asked the Prophet 'Why we then had to conduct clandestine activism. I swear by Allâh Who has sent you with the Truth, that we will leave our concealment and proclaim our noble cause publicly.' We then went out in two groups, Hamzah leading one and I the other. We headed for the Mosque in broad daylight when the polytheists of Quraish saw us, their faces went pale and got incredibly depressed and resentful. On that very occasion, the Prophet attached to me the epithet of Al-Farooq."
Migration to MedinaEdit
In 622 due to the growing popularity of Islam in the city of Yathrib (later renamed Al-Medīna Al-Munawara, the enlightened city, or simply Medina) Muhammad ordered his followers to migrate to Medina. Muslims usually migrated at night due to fear of Quraish's resistance to that migration, but Umar is reported to have migrated openly during the day time saying: Any one who wants to make his wife a widow and his children orphan. should come and meet me there behind that cliff." Umar migrated to Medina accompanied by his cousin and brother-in-law Saeed ibn Zaid.
Life in MedinaEdit
Medina became the new center of Islam and the religion spread rapidly across Arabia. When Muhammad arrived in Medina, he paired off each immigrant (Muhajir) with one of the residents of the city (Ansari), joining Muhammad ibn Maslamah with Umar making them brothers in faith. Later in Umar's reign as caliph Muhammad ibn Muslamah would be assigned the office of chief inspector of Accountability. Muslims remained in peace in Medina for approximately a year before the Quraish raised an army to attack them. In 624 Umar participated in the first Battle between Muslims and Quraish of Mecca i.e. Battle of Badr.In 625 he participated in the Battle of Uhud. In the second phase of Battle when Khalid ibn Walid's Cavalry attacked Muslims at the rear changing the victory of Muslims to defeat, rumors of Muhammad’s death were spread many Muslim were warriors routed from the battle field, Umar too was initially routed but hearing that Muhammad was still alive he went to Muhammad at the mountain of Uhud and prepared for the defenses of the hill to keep the Quraishi army down the hill. Later in the year Umar was a part of campaign against the Jewish tribe of Banu Nadir. In 625 Umar’s daughter Hafsah was married to Muhammad. Later in 627 he participated in the Battle of the Trench and also in the Battle of Banu Qurayza. In 628 Umar participated in the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah and was made one of the witness over the pact. In 628 he was a part of Muslims' campaign to Khaybar. In 629 Muhammad sent Amr ibn al-A’as to Zaat-ul-Sallasal from where he called for reinforcement and Muhammad sent Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah with reinforcement, serving under him were Abu Bakr and Umar, they attacked and defeated the enemy. In 630 when Muslim armies rushed for the Conquest of Mecca he was part of that army. Later in 630 he was part of Battle of Hunayn and Siege of Ta'if. He was part of Muslim's army that went for the campaign of Tabuk under Muhammad's command and he was reported to have given half of his wealth for the preparation of this expedition. He also participated in a farewell Hajj of Muhammad in 631.
Death of MuhammadEdit
Muhammad died on 8 June 632. Umar was full of grief upon hearing the news, Umar, the devoted disciple, could not accept the reality that the "Messenger of God" has died. According to the Qur'an, "Muhammad is but a messenger; messengers have passed away before", i.e. died or killed. It is said that Umar promised to strike the head of any man who would say that Muhammad died. At this point Abu Bakr is reported to have come out to the Muslim community and gave his famous speech which included:
|« "Whoever worshipped Muhammad, let them know that Muhammad is dead, and whoever worshipped God, let them know that God is alive and never dies." »</div>|
Abū Bakr then recited these verses from the Qur'an:
|« "Muhammad is but a messenger; messengers (the like of whom) have passed away before him. If, then, he dies or is killed, will you turn back on your heel?". »</div>|
Hearing this from Abu Bakr, the most senior disciple of Muhammad, Umar then fell down on his knees in great sense of sorrow and acceptance of the reality. Sunni Muslims say that this denial of Muhammad's death was occasioned by his deep love for him.
Caliph Abu Bakr's eraEdit
During Abu Bakr's short reign as caliph he mostly remained occupied with Ridda wars, Umar was one of his chief advisers and secretary. Umar along with Khalid ibn Walid, probably was the architect and main strategist behind the collapse of rebellion in Arabia. Though at the beginning due to the apprehensive situation in Arabia Umar was opposing the military operations against the rebel tribes, it was to enjoy their support in case of any possible foreign invasion by Romans or Persian, but later he seemed to agree with Abu Bakr's warlike strategies to crush rebellion. Khalid ibn Walid by late 632 had successfully united Arabia after consecutive victories against rebels. Later during his own reign, Umar would mostly adopt the policy of avoiding wars and consolidating his power in the conquered land rather than expanding his empire through continuous warfare. Prior to Battle of Yamamah, Umar pressured Abu Bakr to call back Khalid, who had killed Malik ibn Nuwayrah, a rebel chief who was a state criminal. Umar was reportedly misguided by Malik's brother that Malik was a Muslim and Khalid killed him because he wanted to marry his wife Layla bint al-Minhal, a renowned beauty in Arabia. While Abu Bakr refused to accept Umar's opinion and Umar continue insisting for Khalid disposal even after Khalid's conquest of Iraq. This became a major issue between Abu Bakr and Umar and a spacious chapter in Islamic history. Another very critical event happened during Abu Bakr rein was killing of Fatima (Daughter of Prophet Muhammad) by Umar. Umar burnt the door of Ali's house which fell on Fatima. She was pregnant and her baby died before birth. It was Umar who advised Abu Bakr to compile Quran in the form of a book, after the death of 300 memorizers of Quran in Battle of Yamamah. Abu Bakr appointed Umar as his successor prior to his death in 634. He was confirmed in the office thereafter.
Appointment as a CaliphEdit
Due to his strict and autocratic nature, Umar was not a very popular figure among the notables of Madinah and members of Majlis al Shura, accordingly succession of Umar was initially discouraged by high ranking companions of Abu Bakr. Nevertheless, Abu Bakr decided to make Umar, his successor. Umar was still well known for his extraordinary will power, intelligence, political astuteness, impartiality, justice and care for poor and underprivileged people. Abu Bakr is reported to have said to the high-ranking advisers:
|« His (Umar's) strictness was there because of my softness when the weight of Caliphate will be over his shoulders he will remain no longer strict. If I will be asked by the God to whom I have appointed my successor, I will tell him that I have appointed the best man among your men. »</div>|
Abu Bakr was fully aware of Umar's power and ability to succeed him. Succession of Umar was thus not as troublesome as any of the others. His was perhaps one of the smoothest transitions to power from one authority to another in the Muslim lands. Abu Bakr before his death called Uthman to write his will in which he declared Umar his successor. In his will he instructed Umar to continue the conquests on Iraq and Syrian fronts. Abu Bakr's decision would prove to be crucial in the strengthening of the nascent Islamic empire.
Reign as CaliphEdit
On 22 August Caliph Abu Bakr died. The same day Umar assumed the office of Caliphate. After the assumption of office as the Caliph, Umar addressed the Muslims in his Inaugural address as:
|« "O ye faithful! Abu Bakr is no more amongst us. He has the satisfaction that he has successfully piloted the ship of the Muslim state to safety after negotiating the stormy sea. He successfully waged the apostasy wars, and thanks to him, Islam is now supreme in Arabia. After Abu Bakr, the mantle of Caliphate has fallen on my shoulders. I swear it before God that I never coveted this office. I wished that it would have devolved on some other person more worthy than me. But now that in national interest, the responsibility for leading the Muslims has come to vest in me, I assure you that I will not run away from my post, and will make an earnest effort to discharge the onerous duties of the office to the best of my capacity in accordance with the injunctions of Islam. Allah has examined me from you and you from me, In the performance of my duties, I will seek guidance from the Holy Book, and will follow the examples set by the Holy Prophet and Abu Bakr. In this task I seek your assistance. If I follow the right path, follow me. If I deviate from the right path, correct me so that we are not led astray. »</div>|
Umar was already not an endearing figure in Medina. Although almost all of the Muslims had given pledge of loyalty to him, nevertheless he was rather more feared than loved. The first challenge for Umar was to win out his subjects and members of Majlis al Shura. Umar was a gifted orator, and he would use his ability to get a soft corner in the hearts of people. On Friday prayers Umar addressed the people as follows:
|« Brethren, it has come to my notice that the people are afraid of me..... they say that he (Umar) has become the Caliph now, God knows how hard he will be. Whoever has said this is not wrong in his assessment...... know ye brethren that you will feel a change in me. For those who practise tyranny and deprive others of their rights, I will be harsh and stern, but for those who follow the law, I will be most soft and tender. »</div>|
Umar's addresses greatly moved the people. Next time he addressed the people as:
|« I will be harsh and stern against the aggressor, but I will be a pillar of strength for the weak. »</div>|
|« I will not calm down until I will put one cheek of a tyrant on the ground and the other under my feet, and for the poor and weak, I will put my cheek on the ground. »</div>|
The following are the historic words of Umar, over which he laid foundation of his rule:
|« By God, he that is weakest among you shall be in my eye the strongest, until I have vindicated for him his rights; he that is strongest I will treat as the weakest, until he complies with the law. »</div>|
Umar's stress was on the well being of poor and underprivileged people. As this class made a bulk of any community, the people were soundly moved by Umar's speeches and his popularity grew rapidly and continuously over the period of his reign. In addition to this Umar, in order to improve his reputation and relation with Banu Hashim, the tribe of Prophet Muhammad and Ali, delivered to him his disputed estates in Khayber. Though he followed Abu Bakr's decision over the dispute of land of Fidak, continued its status as a state property. In Ridda wars, thousands of prisoners from rebel and apostate tribes were taken away as slaves during the expeditions. Umar ordered the general amnesty for the prisoners, and their immediate emancipation. This made Umar quite a popular among the budoiene tribes. With necessary public support with him, Umar took a bold decision of retrieving Khalid ibn Walid from supreme command on Roman front.
Political and civil administrationEdit
The government of Umar was more or less a unitary government, where the sovereign political authority was the Caliph. The empire of Umar was divided into provinces and some autonomous territories like in some regions Azerbaijan and Armenia, that had accepted the suzerainty of the Caliphate. The provinces were administered by the provincial governors or Wali. The selection of which was made personally by Umar, who was very fastidious in it. Provinces were further divided into districts, there were about 100 districts in the empire. Each district or main city was under the charge of a junior governor or Wali, usually appointed by Umar himself, but occasionally they were also appointed by the provincial governor. Other officers at the provincial level were:
- Katib, the Chief Secretary.
- Katib-ud-Diwan, the Military Secretary.
- Sahib-ul-Kharaj, the Revenue Collector.
- Sahib-ul-Ahdath, the Police chief.
- Sahib-Bait-ul-Mal, the Treasury Officer.
- Qadi, the Chief Judge.
In some districts there were separate military officers, though the Governor (Wali) was in most cases the Commander-in-chief of the army quartered in the province. Every appointment was made in writing. At the time of appointment an instrument of instructions was issued with a view to regulating the conduct of Governors. On assuming office, the Governor was required to assemble the people in the main mosque, and read the instrument of instructions before them.
Umar's general instructions to his officers were:
|« "Remember, I have not appointed you as commanders and tyrants over the people. I have sent you as leaders instead, so that the people may follow your example. Give the Muslims their rights and do not beat them lest they become abused. Do not praise them unduly, lest they fall into the error of conceit. Do not keep your doors shut in their faces, lest the more powerful of them eat up the weaker ones. And do not behave as if you were superior to them, for that is tyranny over them." »</div>|
Various other strict code of conducts were to be obeyed by the governors and state officials. The principal officers were required to come to Mecca on the occasion of the Hajj, during which people were free to present any complaint against them. In order to minimize the chances of corruption, Umar made it a point to pay high salaries to the staff. Provincial governor received as much as five to seven thousand dirham annually besides their shares of the spoils of war (if they were also the commander in chief of the army of their sector). Under Umar the empire was divided into the following provinces.
- Arabia was divided into two provinces, Mecca and Medina;
- Iraq was divided into two provinces, Basra and Kufa;
- In the upper reaches of the Tigris and the Euphrates, Jazira was a province;
- Syria was a province;
- Umar divided Palestine in two provinces Aylya and Ramallah;
- Egypt was divided into two provinces, Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt;
- Persia was divided into three provinces, Khorasan; Azarbaijan and Fars.
Umar was first to established a special department for the investigation of complaints against the officers of the State. This department acted as Administrative court, where the legal proceedings were personally led by Umar. The Department was under the charge of Muhammad ibn Maslamah, one of Umar's most trusted men. In important cases Muhammad ibn Maslamah was deputed by Umar to proceed to the spot, investigate the charge and take action. Sometimes an Inquiry Commission was constituted to investigate the charge. On occasions the officers against whom complaints were received were summoned to Medina, and charged in Umar's administrative court. One of Umar's most powerful department was his intelligence department of secret services[dubious ]. Umar's iron fist rule on his empire, is often credited to this institution . His agents were everywhere, in the army, in the bureaucracy and in the enemy land. For the officials of Umar it was said to be the most fearsome department[dubious ].
Umar was a pioneer in some affairs:
- Umar was the first to introduce the public ministry system, where the records of officials and soldiers were kept. He also kept a record system that had the messages he sent to Governors and heads of states.
- He was the first to appoint police forces to keep civil order.
- He was the first to discipline the people when they became disordered.
Umar is regarded as one of the greatest political geniuses in history. While under his leadership, the empire was expanding at a unprecedented rate, he also began to build the political structure that would hold together the vast empire that was being built. He undertook many administrative reforms and closely oversaw public policy. He established an advanced administration for the newly conquered lands, including several new ministries and bureaucracies, and ordered a census of all the Muslim territories. During his rule, the garrison cities (amsar) of Basra and Kufa were founded or expanded. In 638, he extended and renovated the Masjid al-Haram (Grand Mosque) in Mecca and the Al-Masjid al-Nabawi (Mosque of the Prophet) in Medina. Umar also ordered the expulsion of the Christian and Jewish communities of Najran and Khaybar allowing them to reside in Syria or Iraq. He issued orders that these Christians and Jews should be treated well and allotted them the equivalent land in their new settlements. Umar also forbade non-Muslims to reside in the Hejaz for longer than three days. He was first to establish army as a state department. Umar was founder of Fiqh, the Islamic jurisprudence. He is regarded by Sunni Muslims to be one of the greatest Faqih. Umar as a jurist started the process of codifying Islamic Law. In 641, he established Bayt al-mal, a financial institution and started annual allowance for the Muslims. A year later he also started allowance for the poor, underprivileged and old non-Muslim citizens of the empire. As a leader, 'Umar was known for his simple, austere lifestyle. Rather than adopt the pomp and display affected by the rulers of the time, he continued to live much as he had when Muslims were poor and persecuted. In 639, his fourth year as caliph and the seventeenth year 17 since the Hijra, he decreed that the Islamic calendar should be counted from the year of the Hijra of Muhammad from Mecca to Madinah.
It is widely believed that Umar stressed more on consolidating his power and political influence in the conquered land, rather than pursuing conquests. Nevertheless under Umar, The Islamic empire grew at an unprecedented rate. In 638, after the conquest of Syria, Umar dismissed Khalid, his most successful general due to his every growing fame and influence. Later however Umar regretted this decision. The military conquest were partially terminated between 638–639 during the years of great famine and plague in Arabia and Levant respectively. During his reign the Levant, Egypt, Cyrenaica, Tripolitania, Fezzan, Eastern Anatolia, almost the whole of the Sassanid Persian Empire including Bactria, Persia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Caucasus and Makran were annexed to Islamic Empire. Accordiong to one estimate more than 4050 cities were captured during these military conquest. Prior to his death in 644, Umar had ceased all military expeditions apparently to consolidate his rule in Egypt and the newly conquered Sassanid Empire (642–644). At his death in November 644, the domain of his rule extended from present day Libya in west to the Indus river in east and the Oxus river in north.
The great famineEdit
In the year 638, Arabia fell into severe drought followed by a famine. Bedouin people began to die because of hunger and epidemic disease. Hundreds of thousands of people from all over Arabia gathered at Madinah where food was rationed. Soon the reserves of food at Madinah began to decline, and Umar wrote to the provincial governors of Syria, Palestine and Iraq for aid. A state of emergency was declared in Madinah and Arabia. The timely aid of Umar's governors saved the lives of thousands of people through out Arabia. The first governor to respond was Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, the governor of Syria and supreme commander of Rashidun army. He sent a historic letter to Umar saying
|« I am sending you the Caravans whose one end will be here at Syria and the other will be at Madinah. »</div>|
Later, Abu Ubaidah paid a personal visit to Madinah and acted as an officer of Disaster management cell, which was headed personally by Umar. Once an adequate supply of rations reached Madinah, Umar dispatched his men to the routes of Iraq, Palestine and Syria to take the supply caravans to the desert settlements deeper into Arabia, which in turn saved millions from starvation. For internally displaced people, Umar hosted a dinner every night at Madinah, which according to one estimate had attendance of more than hundred thousand people. By early 639 conditions begun to improve. Arabia received precipitation and as soon as the famine ended, Umar personally supervised the rehabilitation of the displaced people. They were given adequate amounts of rations and were exempted from payment of zakat for that year and the next year.
The great plagueEdit
While famine was ending in Arabia, many districts in Syria and Palestine were devastated by plague. While Umar was on his way to visit Syria, at Elat, he was received by Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, governor of Syria, who informed him about plague and its intensity and he was suggest to go back to Madinah. Umar tried to persuade Abu Ubaidah to come with him to Madinah but he denied to leave his troops in that critical situation. Abu Ubaidah died in 639 due to plague, which also cost the life of 25,000 Muslims in Syria. After the plague had weakened in late 639 Umar visited Syria for political and administrative re-organization, as most of the veteran commanders and governors had died of plague.
In 644, at zenith of his power, Umar was assassinated. His assassination was carried out by a Persian, in response to the Muslim conquest of Persia. The assassination was planned several months earlier. In October 644 Umar went for Hajj in Mecca, the assassins started the hoopla of Umar's possible death that year, and the massive crowd of the congregation was used by the conspirators as a veil to hide themselves. It is related that when Umar stood at Mount Arafat he heard a voice saying:
|« "O Caliph, never again will you stand on the Mount of Arafat". »</div>|
A companion of Umar, Jabir bin Mutaam is reported to have said:
|« We saw a man standing at the top of the hill and crying 'Verily that is the last Hajj of Umar. He will never come here again." »</div>|
During one of rituals of Hajj, the Ramy al-Jamarat (stoning of the Devil), some one threw a stone on Umar that wounded his head, a voice was heard that Umar will not attend the Hajj ever again. Amongst the conspirators was:
- Hormuzan, the alleged mastermind of the plot. He was Persian Commander in Chief and was captured and brought to Umar at Madinah where to save his life he apparently converted to Islam.
- One of Umar's advisors, Ka'ab al-Ahbar, a former Jewish Rabbi, who apparently had converted to Islam, but his conversion is generally doubted by the Shi'ite scholars.
- Jafinah, the Christian Arab from Iraq, who was also a foster brother of Saad ibn Abi Waqqas, former governors of Busra.
- Piruzan, popularly known as Abu Lulu, he was slave of Mughira ibn Shu'ba the then governor of Busra.
It was Abu Lulu who was assigned the mission of assassinating Umar. According to the plan, before the Fajrprayers (the morning prayers before the dawn) Abu Lulu will enter Al-Masjid al-Nabawi, the main mosque of Madinah where Umar led the prayers and will attack Umar during the prayers, and will flee or will mix with the congregation at mosque. There were Persian children slaves in Madina. Seeing them, Firoz is quoted saying:
|« You have been enslaved at such a tender age. This Umar sees eaten my heart. I will take his heart out. »</div>|
Abu Lulu brought a conjectural complaint to Umar about the high tax charged from him by his master Mughirah. Umar wrote to Mughirah and inquired about the tax, Mughirah's reply was satisfactory Umar held that the tax charged from Abu Lulu was reasonable, owning to his daily income. Umar than is reported to have asked Abu Lulu:
|« I heard that you make windmills; make one for me as well. In a sullen mood, Firoz said, " Verily I will make such a mill for you, that whole world would remember it ". »</div>|
On 3 November 644, Umar was attacked, while leading the morning prayers, Abu Lulu stabbed him six times in the belly and last on the navel, that proved fatal. Umar was left profusely bleeding while Abu Lulu tried to flee but people from all sides rushed to capture him, he in his efforts to escape is reported to have wounded twelve other people, six or nine of them later died. At last he was captured but committed suicide from the same dagger. Umar died of the wounds three days later on Sunday, 7 November 644. Umar is reported to have left the following testament:
|« Be kind and generous to the Muhajirun and the Ansar. Those out of them who are good, be good to them; those who are bad overlook their lapses. Be good to the people of the conquered lands. They are the outer line of our defense; they are the target of the anger and distress of our enemies. They contribute to our revenues. They should be taxed only on their surplus wealth. Be gracious to the Bedouins as they are the backbone of the Arab nation. I instruct you to be good to the Dhimmis for they are your responsibility. Do not tax them beyond their capacity. Ensure that they pay the Jizya without undue inconvenience. Fear God, and in all that you do keep His pleasure in view. In the matter of people fear God, and in the matter of Allah do not be afraid of the people. With regard to the people, I enjoin upon you to administer justice with an even hand. See that all the legitimate requirements of the people are met. Be concerned for their welfare. Ensure the safety of their person and property. See that the frontiers of our domains are not violated. Take strong steps to guard the frontiers. In the matter of administration do not prefer the rich to the poor. Be hard against those who violate the law. Show them no mercy. Do not rest content until you have brought the miscreants to book. Treat all the people as equal. Be a pillar of strength for those who are weak and oppressed. Those who are strong but do wrong, make them pay for their wrong-doings. In the distribution of booty and other matters be above nepotism. Let no consideration of relationship or selfish interest weigh with you. The Satan is at large; it may tempt you. Rise above all temptations and perform your duties in accordance with the injunctions of Islam. Get guidance from the Holy Quran and Sunnah. Freely consult the wise men around you. Apply your own mind in difficult cases, and seek light from God. Be simple in your living and your habits. Let there be no show or ostentation about you. Lead life as a model Muslim. As you are the leader of the Muslims, justify your leadership by being the best among them all. May God bless you. »</div>|
As per Umar's will, he was buried next to Al-Masjid al-Nabawi alongside Muhammad and Caliph Abu Bakr by the permission of Aisha.
On his death bed Umar vacillated to appoint his successor, however it has been reported that he said that if Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, Khalid ibn Walid or Salim, the mawali and freed Persian slave, were alive he would have appointed one of them his successor. Umar finally appointed a committee of six persons comprising,
- Ali ibn Abi Taleb
- Saad ibn Abi Waqqas
- Talha ibn Ubaidullah
- Uthman ibn Affan
- Abd-al-Rahman ibn Awf
- Zubayr ibn al-Awwam
Their task was to chose a caliph from amongst them. Umar appointed a band of fifty armed soldiers to protect the house where the meeting was proceeding. Until the appointment of the next caliph Umar appointed a notable Sahabi, a mawali, Suhayb ar-Rumi (Suhayb the Roman) as a caretaker Caliph. While the historic meeting for selection of caliph was preceding, Abdulrehman ibn Abu Bakr and Abdur Rahman bin Awf revealed that they saw the dagger used by Abu Lulu, the assassin of Umar. A night before Umar's assassination, reported Abdur Rahman bin Awf, he saw Hormuzan, Jafina and Abu Lulu, while they were suspiciously discussing some thing, bewildered by his presence, the dagger fell, it was the same two sided dagger used in the assissination. Abudulrehman ibn Abu Bakr, son of late caliph Abu Bakr also confirmed that a few days before Umar's assassination, he once saw this dagger with Hurmazan. After the mystery of assassination got uncovered by the two of the most notable governmental figures, it seemed clear that the assassination was planned by the Persians residing in Medina. Infuriate by this Umar's younger son Ubaidullah ibn Umar sought to kill all the Persians in Madinah. He killed Hormuzan, Jafinah, and daughter of Umar's assassin Abu Lulu, who is believed to be a Muslim. Ubaidullah was intercepted by the people of Madinah and withholding him from the massacre. Amr ibn al-Aas is said to have intercepted him, convinced him to handover his sword. The murder of Jafinah, enraged Saad ibn Abi Waqqas, his foster brother, and he assaulted Ubaidullah ibn Umar and again the companions intervened. It is also believed that Umar daughter Hafsa bint Umar provoked Ubaidullah to take the punitive action. When Umar was informed about the incident, he ordered that Ubaidullah should be imprisoned and the next Caliph should decide his fate. Umar died on 7 November 644; on 11 November Uthman succeeded him as the Caliph. After prolonged negotiations the tribunal decided to give blood money to the victims and released Umar's son Ubaidullah, on the ground that after the tragic incident of Umar's assassination people will be further infuriated by execution of his son the very next day.
Umar is regarded as one of the most influential figures in Islamic history. He was in a true sense the architect of the Islamic Empire. As a leader, 'Umar was known for his simple, austere lifestyle. Rather than adopt the pomp and display affected by the rulers of the time, he continued to live much as he had when Muslims were poor and persecuted. 'Umar was vigorous, robust and a very tall man, in markets he would tower above the people. The front part of his head was bald, always A'sara Yusran (working with two hands), both his eyes are black, with yellow skin, however, ibn Sa'ad in his book The Book of the Major Classes (Tabaqat al-Kubra) stated that he never knew that 'Umar had yellow skin, except if the people took into criterion a certain part of his life where his color changed because he always ate oil at that part of his life, Others say he has reddish-white skin. His teeth were ashnabul asnan (very white shining). He would always color his beard and take care of his hair using a type of plant.
|« Hadrat Umar (r.a.) appointed Hadrat Ali (r.a.) as his deputy and went to Jerusalem with his slave. They were having one camel on which each of them rode by turn. When Hadrat Umar (r.a.) was entering Jerusalem it happened to be the slave’s turn to ride on the camel. Though the slave offered his turn to the "Khalifah" but Hadrat Umar refused and remarked: "The honour of Islam (i.e., being Muslim) is enough for all of us." He entered Jerusalem holding the rope of the camel on which was riding his slave. His clothes were dirty and there were several patches on them. »</div>|
(Encyclopaedia of Islam)
|“||Yet the abstinence and humility of Umar were not inferior to the virtues of Abu Bakr: his food consisted of barley bread or dates; his drink was water; he preached in a gown that was torn or tattered in twelve places; and a Persian satrap, who paid his homage as to the conqueror, found him asleep among the beggars on the steps of the mosque of Muslims||”|
Umar is considered as a political genius, as an architect of Islamic Empire he is regarded as 52nd most influential figure in history. Umar remained politically stagnant during Prophet Mohammad's era, however after his death, it was Umar's political brilliance that Abu Bakr was elected Caliph, despite of massive initial confrontations at Saqifah, Umar successfully broke the alliance of the tribes of Madinah who claim Caliphate to be their right, paving the way for the succession of Abu Bakr. During Abu Bakr's era, he actively participated as his secretory and main adviser. After succeeding Abu Bakr as caliph, Umar win over the hearts of Baudouin tribes by emancipating all their prisoners and slaves taken during Ridda wars, his excellent oratory skills helped him to heightened his popularity graph, mostly among the poor and underprivileged people. He proved himself as a excellent manager during the year of the great Famine when his dynamic abilities saved millions from starvation. He is best known to built up an efficient administrative structure of the empire, that held together his vast realm. He organized an effective network of intelligence, partly a reason for his strong grip on his bureaucracy. His judicial reforms were fairly modern and advance in nature when compared to contemporary systems of his era. He opposed the construction of present day Suez Canal, as it posed threat to the security of Madinah. Twelve hundred years later Great Britain opposed the construction of the canal for the same reason as it then posed threat to its colonies in Indian subcontinent. One of the reason of the compactness of his political rule in the conquered lands is reputed to his policy of tolerance to their religious beliefs and imposition of far lower taxes on them as compared to Sassanid Persian empire and Byzantine Empire. Their local administration was kept un-touched and several of the former Byzantine and Persian official were retained on their services under Umar's governors. Umar was very painstaking in every matter. His meticulous was evident from his appointment of governors and judges that never let him lose his grip on the government. He never appointed governors for more than two years, for they might get influence in their county. He dismissed his most successful general Khalid ibn Walid, due to his immense popularity and growing influence that he saw menace to his authority. Rather than tenacious conquest he stressed more on consolidating his rule in the conquered land, a fact that saved Byzantine empire from complete disappearance. Umar is reported to have wished an official tour across his domain to personally examine the condition of his subjects. In 641, before the conquest of Persian empire, Umar is reported to have said:
|« If I would live few more years, I wish to visit Syria next year, then next Iraq and then the next year Egypt to personally check the conditions of the subjects and inquire whether my mandate is followed or not. »</div>|
At the time, Umar made this statement, Persia was not yet conquered (conquest of Persia begun in 642). He would walk the streets of Medina with a whip in his hand, and it is said that Umar's whip was feared more than the sword of another man. He is famous for covert night tour of the city to know the secret life of his domain, the tradition that later be followed by some of the Abbasid Caliphs and even Mughul rulers of Indian subcontinent.
Social justice and accountabilityEdit
Saeed M Mohtsham cites from Caliph Umar's rule in his research paper Vision and Visionary Leadership – An Islamic Perspective:
|« "He used to monitor very closely the public policy and had kept the needs of the public central to his leadership approach. As second caliph of Islam, he refused to chop off the hands of the thieves because he felt he had fallen short of his responsibility to provide meaningful employment to all his subjects. As a ruler of a vast kingdom, His vision was to ensure that every one in his kingdom should sleep on a full stomach. »</div>|
|« If a dog dies hungry on the banks of the River Euphrates, Umar will be responsible for dereliction of duty. »</div>|
|« He also knew that just having a vision is not enough unless it is supported by effective strategies. He didn’t only have a vision; he truly transformed his vision into actions. For example, to ensure that nobody sleeps hungry in his empire, he used to walk through the streets almost every night to see if there is any one needy or ill." »</div>|
It has been reported that Umar was a champion wrestler of his time, and though not distinguished as a swordsman, he would later attain prominence as a master strategist. Along with Khalid, he is said to be one of the key figures in the collapse of the Arabian rebellion, the greatest triumph of Abu Bakr. One of his greatest strategic marvels was his brilliant fission of Persio-Roman alliance in 636, when Emperor Heraclius and Emperor Yazdegerd III allied against their common enemy Umar. He was lucky in that the Persian Emperor Yazdegerd III couldn't synchronize with Heraclius as planned. Umar fully availed the opportunity and successfully tackled the minefield by straining the Byzantines to jump in the battle. This was contrary to the orders of Empreror Heraclius, who presumably wanted a coordinated attack along with the Persians. Umar did this by sending reinforcements to the Roman front with instructions that they should appear in the form of small bands, one after the other, giving the impression of a continuous stream of reinforcements that finally lured the Byzantines to an untimely battle. On the other hand Yazdegerd III of Persia was engaged in negotiations that further gave Umar time to transfer his troops from Syria to Iraq. These troops proved decisive in the Battle of Qadisiyyah. Both the battles thus fought proved decisive and are noted as two of the most decisive battles in history.
His strategic dimensions were the prime reason of Muslim victory at 2nd Battle of Emesa in 638. Where the pro-Byzantine Christian Arabs of Jazira, aided by Byzantine Emperor, making an unexpected flanking movement and laid siege to Emesa (Homs). Umar's brilliance was behind this Muslim victory and was achieved without firing a single shot.
Umar's orders to invade the very homeland of the Christian Arab forces besieging Emesa, the Jazirah. A three prong attack against Jazirah was launched from Iraq. To further pressurize the Christian Arab armies, Umar instructed Saad ibn Abi Waqqas, commander of Muslim forces in Iraq, to sent reinforcement to Emesa, Umar himself led a reinforcement from Madinah and marched towards Emesa. Under this unprecedented press-gang, Christian Arabs retreated from Emesa before Muslims reinforcement could reach their. This incursion from Byzantines however resulted in Muslim annex Mesopotamia and parts of Byzantine Armenia.
Nonetheless the greatest triumph of Umar remained Conquest of Persian empire. After years of non-offensive policy according to which Umar wished the Zagros Mountains to be the frontiers between Muslims and Persians, after Battle of Nahavand Umar launched a whole scale invasion of Sassanid Persian Empire. The invasion was a series of well coordinated multi-prong attacks that was based on the principle of isolating and then destroying the target. Umar launched the invasion by attacking the very heart of Persia aiming to isolate Azerbaijan and eastern Persia. It was immediately followed by simultaneous attacks on Azerbaijan and Fars. In the final secession Sistan and Kirman and captured thus isolating the stronghold of Persian, the Khurasan. The final expedition was launched against Khurasan where after Battle of Oxus river Persian empire ceased to exist, and emperor Yazdegerd III fled to Central Asia. He founded the city of Cairo, conquered 36,000 cities or castles, and built 1400 mosques.
Sunnis remember Umar as a rigid Muslim of a sound and just disposition in matters of the religion of Allah, a man they title Farooq, meaning "leader, jurist and statesman", and the second of the rightly-guided Caliphs. He patched his clothes with skin, took buckets on his two shoulders, always riding his donkey without the saddle, rarely laughing and never joking with anyone. On his ring is written the words "Enough is Death as a reminder to you O' 'Umar". He did not seek advancement for his own family, but rather sought to advance the interests of the Muslim community, the ummah. The general Sunni sentiment for Umar is summarized by one of Muhammad's companions, Abd Allah ibn Mas'ud:
|« Umar's submission to Islam was a conquest, his migration was a victory, his Imamate (period of rule) was a blessing, I have seen when we were unable to pray at the Kaabah until Umar submitted, when he submitted to Islam, he fought them (the pagans) until they left us alone and we prayed. »</div>|
(Abd Allah ibn Mas'ud)
Umar is viewed very negatively in Shi'a literature and is regarded as a traitor to Muhammad, a usurper of Ali's rights, and a murderer. According to shia, his role during Muhammad's life time is questioned as he was not assigned to any civil or military authority. Some Shi'a writers have accused him of killing Muhammad's daughter Fatimah (see Fatimah's death). According to Shia Muslims, Fatimah, wife of Ali and daughter of Muhammad, was physically abused by him. These sources report that the event caused her to miscarry her child and eventually led to her death soon after. (see Umar at Fatimah's house).
In his book Mahomet and His Successors, Washington Irving estimates the achievements of Umar in the following terms:
|« The whole history of Omar shows him to have been a man of great powers of mind, inflexible integrity, and rigid justice. He was, more than any one else, the founder of the Islam empire; confirming and carrying out the inspirations of the prophet; aiding Abu Beker with his counsels during his brief caliphate; and establishing wise regulations for the strict administration of the law throughout the rapidly-extending bounds of the Moslem conquests. The rigid hand which he kept upon his most popular generals in the midst of their armies, and in the most distant scenes of their triumphs, gave signal evidence of his extraordinary capacity to rule. In the simplicity of his habits, and his contempt for all pomp and luxury, he emulated the example of the prophet and Abu Beker. He endeavored incessantly to impress the merit and policy of the same in his letters to his generals. 'Beware,' he would say, 'of Persian luxury, both in food and raiment. Keep to the simple habits of your country, and Allah will continue you victorious; depart from them, and he will reverse your fortunes.' It was his strong conviction of the truth of this policy which made him so severe in punishing all ostentatious style and luxurious indulgence in his officers. Some of his ordinances do credit to his heart as well as his head. He forbade that any female captive who had borne a child should be sold as a slave. In his weekly distributions of the surplus money of his treasury he proportioned them to the wants, not the merits of the applicants. 'God,' said he, 'has bestowed the good things of this world to relieve our necessities, not to reward our virtues: those will be rewarded in another world.' »</div>|
|« Omar's life requires but few lines to sketch. Simplicity and duty were his guiding principles; impartiality and devotion the leading features of his administration. Responsibility so weighed upon him that he was heard to exclaim, 'O that my mother had not borne me; would that I had been this stalk of grass instead!' In early life of a fiery and impatient temper, he was known, even in the later days of the Prophet, as the stern advocate of vengeance. Ever ready to unsheathe the sword, it was he that at Bedr advised the prisoners to be all put to death. But age, as well as office, had now mellowed this asperity. His sense of justice was strong. And excepting the treatment of Khalid, whom he pursued with an ungenerous resentment, no act of tyranny or injustice is recorded against him; and even in this matter his enmity took its rise in Khalid's unscrupulous treatment of a fallen foe. The choice of his captains and governors was free from favouritism, and (Moghira and Ammar excepted) singularly fortunate. The various tribes and bodies in the empire, representing interests the most diverse, reposed in his integrity implicit confidence, and his strong arm maintained the discipline of law and empire. ... Whip in hand, he would perambulate the streets and markets of Medina, ready to punish slanders on the spot; and so the proverb,-'Omar's whip more terrible than another's sword.' But with all this he was tender-hearted, and numberless acts of kindness are recorded of him, such as relieving the wants of the widow and the fatherless. »</div>|
|« Yet the abstinence and humility of Omar were not inferior to the virtues of Abubeker: his food consisted of barley-bread or dates; his drink was water; he preached in a gown that was torn or tattered in twelve places; and a Persian satrap, who paid his homage as to the conqueror, found him asleep among the beggars on the steps of the mosch of Medina. Oeconomy is the source of liberality, and the increase of the revenue enabled Omar to establish a just and perpetual reward for the past and present services of the faithful. Careless of his own emolument, he assigned to Abbas, the uncle of the prophet, the first and most ample allowance of twenty-five thousand drams or pieces of silver. Five thousand were allotted to each of the aged warriors, the relics of the field of Beder, and the last and the meanest of the companions of Mahomet was distinguished by the annual reward of three thousand pieces. ... Under his reign, and that of his predecessor, the conquerors of the East were the trusty servants of God and the people: the mass of public treasure was consecrated to the expenses of peace and war; a prudent mixture of justice and bounty, maintained the discipline of the Saracens, and they united, by a rare felicity, the dispatch and execution of despotism, with the equal and frugal maxims of a republican government. »</div>|
|« Simple and frugal in manner, his energetic and talented successor, 'Umar (634–44), who was of towering height, strong physique and bald-headed, continued at least for some time after becoming caliph to support himself by trade and lived throughout his life in a style as unostentatious as that of a Bedouin sheikh. In fact 'Umar, whose name according to Moslem tradition is the greatest in early Islam after that of Muhammad, has been idolized by Moslem writers for his piety, justice and patriarchal simplicity and treated as the personification of all the virtues a caliph ought to possess. His irreproachable character became an exemplar for all conscientious successors to follow. He owned, we are told, one shirt and one mantle only, both conspicuous for their patchwork, slept on a bed of palm leaves and had no concern other than the maintenance of the purity of the faith, the upholding of justice and the ascendancy and security of Islam and the Arabians. Arabic literature is replete with anecdotes extolling 'Umar's stern character. He is said to have scourged his own son to death for drunkenness and immorality. Having in a fit of anger inflicted a number of stripes on a Bedouin who came seeking his succour against an oppressor, the caliph soon repented and asked the Bedouin to inflict the same number on him. But the latter refused. So 'Umar retired to his home with the following soliloquy: 'O son of al-Khattab! humble thou wert and Allah hath elevated thee; astray, and Allah hath guided thee; weak, and Allah hath strengthened thee. Then He caused thee to rule over the necks of thy people, and when one of them came seeking thy aid, thou didst strike him! What wilt thou have to say to thy Lord when thou presentest thyself before Him?' The one who fixed the Hijrah as the commencement of the Moslem era, presided over the conquest of large portions of the then known world, instituted the state register and organized the government of the new empire met a tragic and sudden death at the very zenith of his life when he was struck down (3 November 644) by the poisoned dagger of a Christian Persian slave in the midst of his own congregation. »</div>|
Encyclopedia Britannica remarks about Umar:
|« To 'Omar's ten years' Caliphate belong for the most part the great conquests. He himself did not take the field, but remained in Medina; he never, however, suffered the reins to slip from his grasp, so powerful was the influence of his personality and the Moslem community of feeling. His political insight is shown by the fact that he endeavoured to limit the indefinite extension of Moslem conquest, and to maintain and strengthen the national Arabian character of the commonwealth of Islam; also by his making it his foremost task to promote law and order in its internal affairs. The saying with which he began his reign will never grow antiquated: 'By God, he that is weakest among you shall be in my sight the strongest, until I have vindicated for him his rights; but him that is strongest will I treat as the weakest, until he complies with the laws.' It would be impossible to give a better general definition of the function of the State. »</div>|
On the other hand, David Samuel Margoliouth offers this assessment of Umar:
"Yet we have no record of any occasion on which Omar displayed remarkable courage, though many examples are at hand of his cruelty and bloodthirstiness; at the battle of Hunain he ran away, and on another occasion owed his life to the good nature of an enemy." (Mohammed and the Rise of Islam, pg 164)"
However, in contrast to Margoliouth's assertion, Shahid Ashraf in his literary work Encyclopaedia of Holy Prophet and Companions celebrates Umar as amongst the firmest companions who remained with the Prophet Muhammad at his most critical juncture during the battle of Hunain when others fled during ther disarray:
|« Only a dozen companions stood by the Holy Prophet, all other men fled for safety. The men who stood around the Holy Prophet included Hadrat Abu Bakr, Hadrat Umar and some members of the Hashemites »</div>|
This view of Umar's courageous commitment at the Battle of Hunayn is also shared by Mufti Muhammad Mukarram Ahmed, the famed Ibn Ishaq in his Sīrat rasūl Allāh, Masudul Hasan in Hadrat Ali Murtada. In fact, the famed Ibn Sa'd's Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir, one of the most reliable works of Islamic history, it is reported: "On that day (Battle of Hunayn) those (few) who remained firm were al-Abbas, Ali ibn Abi Talib, ... Abu Bakr, Umar, ..."
Umar married a total of 9 women in his lifetime and had 14 children, 10 sons and 4 daughters.
The details are as follow:
- Wife: Zaynab bint Mazh'un (at the time of Jahiliyyah [Days of Ignorance])
- Wife: Umm Kulthum bint Jarwila Khuzima (divorced)
- Son: Ubaidullah ibn Umar
- Son: Zayd ibn 'Umar
- Wife: Quraybah bint Abi Umayyah al-Makhzumi (divorced, married by Abdulrehman ibn Abu Bakr)
- Wife: Umm Hakim bint al-Harith ibn Hisham (after her husband, a former ally of 'Umar and a companion Ikrimah ibn Abi-Jahl was killed in Battle of Yarmouk, later divorced but al-Madaini says he did not divorce her)
- Daughter: Fatima bint 'Umar
- Wife: Jamilah bint Ashim ibn Thabit ibn Abi al-Aqlah (from the tribe of Aws)
- Son: Asim ibn Umar
- Wife: Atikah bint Zayd ibn Amr ibn Nifayl (cousin of Umar and former wife of Abdullah ibn Abu Bakr married 'Umar in the year 12 AH and after 'Umar was murdered, she married az-Zubayr ibn al-Awwam)
- Son: Iyaad ibn 'Umar
- Wife: Luhyah (a woman from Yemen (Yaman) who's marital status with 'Umar is disputed, al-Waqidi said that she was Umm Walad, meaning a slave woman)
- Son: Abdulrahman ibn 'Umar (the youngest Abdulrehman while some say the middle Abdulrehman from Luhyah)
- Wife: Fukayhah (as Umm Walad)
- Daughter: Zaynab bint 'Umar (the smallest child of 'Umar from Fukayhah)
Another son is, az-Zubayr ibn Bakkar, called Abu Shahmah, though from which wife is unknown.
- Abu Bakr
- Sunni view of the Sahaba
- Sunni view of Umar
- Ahadith on virtues of Abu Bakr
- Hadiths on virtues of Umar bin Khattab
- Ahadith on virtues of Uthman bin Affan
- Ahadith on virtues of Ali bin Abu Talib
- Al Haleem
- ↑ Juan Eduardo Campo, "Encyclopedia of Islam", Infobase Publishing, 2009, p. 685
- ↑ Ibn Kathir, "al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah", part 7.
- ↑ Ahmed, Nazeer, Islam in Global History: From the Death of Prophet Muhammad to the First World War, American Institute of Islamic History and Cul, 2001, p. 34. ISBN 073885963X.
- ↑ Hourani, p. 23.
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- ↑ Al Farooq, Umar, Muhammad Husayn Haykal, chapter no:1
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- ↑ Armstrong, p. 128.
- ↑ Al Farooq, Umar, Muhammad Husayn Haykal Chapter no: 1 page no: 53
- ↑ as-Suyuti, The History of Khalifahs Who Took The Right Way (London, 1995), p. 107-108; T.P. Hughes, 1999, Dictionary of Islam, New Delhi: Rupa & Co..
- ↑ 20,0 20,1 Tartib wa Tahthib Kitab al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah by ibn Kathir, published by Dar al-Wathan publications , Riyadh Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 1422 Anno hegiræ (2002) compiled by Dr. Muhammad ibn Shamil as-Sulami, page 170, ISBN 979-3407-19-6
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- ↑ Serat-i-Hazrat Umar-i-Farooq, Mohammad Allias Aadil, page no:30
- ↑ Serat-i-Hazrat Umar-i-Farooq, Mohammad Allias Aadil, page no:119
- ↑ Armstrong, p. 152.
- ↑ Serat-i-Hazrat Umar-i-Farooq, Mohammad Allias Aadil, page no:40-41
- ↑ Serat-i-Hazrat Umar-i-Farooq, Mohammad Allias Aadil, page no:42-42, Sahih al bukhari
- ↑ 27,0 27,1 Tabqat ibn al-Saad book of Maghazi, page no:62
- ↑ Sahih-al-Bhukari book of Maghazi, Ghazwa Zaat-ul-Sallasal
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- ↑ 30,0 30,1 as-Suyuti, The History of Khalifahs Who Took The Right Way (London, 1995), p. 54 – 61.
- ↑ Medieval Islamic political thought, Patricia Crone, page 18
- ↑ Serat-i-Hazrat Umar-i-Farooq, by Mohammad Allias Aadil, page no:58-59
- ↑ K. Y. Blankinship, The History of al-Tabari: vol. XI, p. 157
- ↑ Early caliphate, Muhammad Ali, Muḥammad Yaʻqūb K̲h̲ān page 85
- ↑ Umar Farooq-i-Azam, Mohammad Hussain Haikal, chapter no:4 page no:112-113
- ↑ K. Y. Blankinship, The History of al-Tabari: vol. XI, p. 145-153.
- ↑ Al Farooq, Umar, Muhammad Husayn Haykal. chapter no:5 page no:119
- ↑ Modern Islamic political thought, Hamid Enayat, page no:6
- ↑ Al Farooq, Umar, Muhammad Husayn Haykal. chapter no:5 page no:123
- ↑ Al Farooq, Umar, Muhammad Husayn Haykal. chapter no:5 page no:124
- ↑ Encyclopedia Britannica
- ↑ Al Farooq, Umar, Muhammad Husayn Haykal. chapter no:5 page no:125
- ↑ Al Farooq, Umar, Muhammad Husayn Haykal. chapter no:5 page no:130
- ↑ Al Farooq, Umar, Muhammad Husayn Haykal. chapter no:5 page no:135
- ↑ Al Farooq, Umar, Muhammad Husayn Haykal. chapter no:5 page no:140
- ↑ The Cambridge History of Islam, ed. P.M. Holt, Ann K.S. Lambton, and Bernard Lewis, Cambridge 1970
- ↑ Commanding right and forbidding wrong in Islamic thought, M. A. Cook, page no:79
- ↑ "The Precious Pearls" Muhammad Ayub Sipra, Darussalam publishers and distributors, 2002 p.57
- ↑ Book of the Thousand Nights and One Night, E. P. Mathers, page no: 471
- ↑ Giorgio Levi Della Vida and Michael Bonner, Encyclopaedia of Islam, and Madelung, The Succession to Prophet Muhammad, p. 74
- ↑ The origins of Islamic jurisprudence, Harald Motzki, Marion
- ↑ Medieval Islamic Civilization, Josef W. Meri, Jere L. Bacharach page no:844
- ↑ Al Farooq, Umar, Muhammad Husayn Haykal. chapter no:22
- ↑ Al Farooq, Umar, Muhammad Husayn Haykal. chapter no:21
- ↑ Modern reformist thought in the Muslim world. By Mazheruddin Siddiqi, Adam Publishers & Distributors. pg.147
- ↑ http://www.songofazrael.org/presentations/kaab-alahbar/kaab-al-ahbar.html
- ↑ http://www.al-islam.org/encyclopedia/chapter10/6.html
- ↑ Al Farooq, Umar, Muhammad Husayn Haykal. chapter no: Death of Umar
- ↑ Al Farooq, Umar, Muhammad Husayn Haykal. chapter no:death of Umar
- ↑ Lisan al-Arab 4/196
- ↑ 61,0 61,1 The Book of the Major Classes (Tabaqat al-Kubra) 3/ 324 by ibn Sa'ad
- ↑ History of the Prophets and Kings (Tarikh ar-Rusul wa al-Muluk) 4/ 196 by Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari
- ↑ Encyclopaedia of Islam
- ↑ The 100, Michael H. Hart
- ↑ Islamic Imperialism, Efraim Karsh, page no: 25
- ↑ Mohtsham, Saeed M., Vision and Visionary Leadership – An Islamic Perspective
- ↑ The American Encyclopedia of 1851
- ↑ 68,0 68,1 Tartib wa Tahthib Kitab al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah by ibn Kathir, published by Dar al-Wathan publications, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 1422 AH (2002) compiled by Dr. Muhammad ibn Shamil as-Sulami, page 168, ISBN 979-3407-19-6
- ↑ Sayed Ali Asgher Razwy, Restatement of History of Islam and Muslims World Federation of KSI Muslim Communities, United Kingdom, ISBN 0 95 09879 1 3
- ↑ http://books.google.com/books?id=zot5IK1csp0C&pg=PA19&dq=&lr=
- ↑ http://books.google.com/books?id=vGhp8Obm3bgC&pg=PA45&dq=&lr=
- ↑ 'Mahomet and His Successors
- ↑ The Caliphate: Its Rise, Decline, and Fall
- ↑ The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
- ↑ History of the Arabs
- ↑ Encyclopedia Britannica
- ↑ Mohammed and the Rise of Islam, pg 164
- ↑ Encyclopaedia of Holy Prophet and Companions by Shahid Ashraf, Anmol Publications PVT. LTD., 2004, p74
- ↑ Encyclopaedia of Islam by Mufti M. Mukarram Ahmed, 2005, p42
- ↑ The life of Muhammad: a translation of Ishāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh Abd al-Malik Ibn Hishām, Alfred Guillaume, Muhammad Ibn Ishāq, Oxford University Press 1998, p569
- ↑ Hadrat Ali Murtada by Masudul Hasan, Islamic Publications 1988, p96
- ↑ Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir Vol. II English Trans, pp. 186-187
- ↑ 83,0 83,1 83,2 83,3 83,4 Nasab Qurayshi page 349 by az-Zubayri
- ↑ Finding the Truth in Judging the Companions (al-Isaba fi tamyiz as-Sahaba) 8/ 193 by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani
- ↑ 85,0 85,1 History of the Prophets and Kings 4/ 199 by Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari
- ↑ The Book of the Major Classes (Tabaqat al-Kubra ibn Sa'd) 3/ 265 by ibn Sa'ad
- ↑ al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah 6/352 by ibn Kathir
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