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Urum
Урум
Pronunciation Şablon:IPA-tt
Spoken in Ukraine, Greece
Total speakers 192,729[1]
Language family Altaic[2] (controversial)
Writing system Cyrillic alphabet, Greek alphabet
Language codes
ISO 639-1 None
ISO 639-2
ISO 639-3 uum

Urum is a Turkic language spoken by several thousand people who inhabit a few villages in the Southeastern Ukraine and in diaspora communities worldwide. The Urum language is often considered a variant of the Crimean Tatar language.

The name Urum is derived from Rûm ("Rome"), the term for the Byzantine empire in the Muslim world. The Ottoman Empire used it to describe non-Muslims within the empire. The initial vowel in Urum is prosthetic: originally Turkic languages did not have ‹r› in the word-initial position, and in borrowed words used to add a vowel before it. The common use of the term Urum appears to have led to some confusion, as most Turkish-speaking Greeks were called Urum. The Turkish-speaking population in Georgia is often confused with the distinct community in Ukraine.[3][4] (see: Urums)

SoundsEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Consonant phonemes
  Labial Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive IPA: p IPA: b IPA: t IPA: d IPA: c IPA: ɟ IPA: k IPA: ɡ    
Affricate         IPA: ts¹   IPA: IPA:            
Fricative IPA: f IPA: v IPA: θ IPA: ð ² IPA: s IPA: z IPA: ʃ IPA: ʒ     IPA: x IPA: ɣ IPA: h  
Nasal IPA: m IPA: n             IPA: ŋ    
Flap/Tap     IPA: ɾ                    
Lateral     IPA: l                    
Approximant                 IPA: j        

(1) IPA: /ts/ is found only in loanwords.

(2) IPA: /θ/ and IPA: /ð/ are found only in loanwords from Greek.

Writing SystemEdit

A few manuscripts are known to be written in Urum using Greek characters.[5] During the period between 1927 and 1937, the Urum language was written in reformed Latin characters, the New Turkic Alphabet, and used in local schools; at least one primer is known to have been printed. In 1937 the use of written Urum stopped. Alexander Garkavets uses the following alphabet:[6]

А а Б б В в Г г Ғ ғ Д д (Δ δ) Д′ д′
(Ђ ђ) Е е Ж ж Җ җ З з И и Й й К к
Л л М м Н н Ң ң О о Ӧ ӧ П п Р р
С с Т т Т′ т′ (Ћ ћ) У у Ӱ ӱ Υ υ Ф ф
Х х Һ һ Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы
Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я Θ θ

PublicationsEdit

Very little has been published on the Urum language. There exists a very small lexicon[7], and a small description of the language[8].

ReferencesEdit

  1. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=uum
  2. "Ethnologue"
  3. Казаков, Алексей (12 2000). "Понтийские греки" (in Russian). http://www.publish.diaspora.ru/magazin/articles/russia026_1.shtml. 
  4. Gordon, Raymond G. (ed.) (2005). "Ethnologue Report for Urum". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. SIL International. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=uum. 
  5. "Urum". Language Museum. http://www.language-museum.com/u/urum.php. 
  6. {{{başlık}}}.
  7. {{{başlık}}}. ISBN 3-447-00299-9.
  8. Podolsky, Baruch (1986). "Notes on the Urum Language". Mediterranean Language Review 2: 99–112. 

Şablon:Altaic languages Şablon:Turkic languages Şablon:Turkic topicsbr:Ouroumeg cv:Урум чĕлхи es:Idioma urrumano fr:Urum (langue) hr:Urumski jezik mk:Урумски јазик pms:Lenga urum crh:Urum tili ru:Урумский язык fi:Urumin kieli tr:Urumca uk:Урумська мова

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