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D. Word. Words. change your words change your world. The words we use, whether talking to others or to ourselves, have a profound effect on our mindset. ... Mindset is, in effect, how you see the world and yourself in the world. numberworksnwords.com › blog Change your words, change your world NumberWorks'nWords How words can change the world? Because words, language, through reading, arrives in the mind like pure thought, unmediated, like telepathy – the writer's ideas, her words, right there in your brain. And once they're in so deep, you can't help them from changing your consciousness, like it or not. ... Words change minds, change hearts, change everything. www.youngwriteraward.com › wor... Why words can change the world - Young Writer of the Year Award

Şablon:Kelimebakınız D
كَلَّمَ (2) كَلَّمَهُ (2) كَلَّمَهُمُ (1) أُكَلِّمَ (1) تُكَلِّمَ (3) تُكَلِّمُنَا (1) تُكَلِّمُهُمْ (1) تُكَلِّمُونِ (1) نُكَلِّمُ (1) يُكَلِّمُ (1) يُكَلِّمُنَا (1) يُكَلِّمَهُ (1) يُكَلِّمُهُمُ (3) كُلِّمَ (1) تَكَلَّمُ (1) نَتَكَلَّمَ (1) يَتَكَلَّمُ (1) يَتَكَلَّمُونَ (1) كَلامَ (3) بِكَلامِي (1) كَلِمَةً (26) كَلِمَتُنَا (1) كَلِمَتُهُ (1) كَلِمَاتٍ (8) كَلِمَاتِهِ (6) الْكَلِمَ (4) تَكْلِيمًا (1) Kelime Söz Sözcük Word Kelimat Sözler Words
Kelime-i tevhid Kelime-i Şehadet Kelimatı kur'an KELİME-İ TAYYİBE Kelimullah Kelim Kelimât Kelime-i tayyibe
kelime cambazı kelime hazinesi kelimei şehadet kelime kadrosu kelime karışıklığı kelime oyunu kelime sıklığı kelime türü kelime vurgusukelimesi kelimesine anahtar kelime basit kelime birleşik kelime kesik kelime kısaltmalı kelime pekiştirmeli kelime taklidî kelime türemiş kelime yalın kelime olumsuzluk kelimesi
Kur'an da kelime ve uygulaması "Kelimetu'llah", Kelamullah Allah'ın sözü (Tevbe, 9/40) "Kelimetün tayyibetün", güzel söz (İbrâhim, 14/24) "el-Kelimü't-tayyib", güzel sözler (Fâtır, 35/10) "Kelimetün bâkiyetûn", kalıcı söz (Zuhruf, 43/28) "Kelimetü't-takva", takva sözü (Fetih, 48/26), "Kelimet sevâ", eşit / doğru söz (Âl-i İmrân, 3/64), kelime-i tevhid (Allah-ı birleme sözü = lâilahe illallâh); "Kelimetün habîsetün", kötü / çirkin söz (İbrâhim, 14/26), "Kelimetü'llezine keferû", kâfirlerin sözü (Tevbe, 9/40), şirk ve küfür ilkesi; "Kelimetü'l-fasl", hüküm sözü (Şûrâ, 42/21, "Kelimetün sebekat min Rabbike", Rabbin'den geçen söz (Hûd, 11/110) ilâhî ve ezelî prensipleri Allah'ın insanlar hakkındaki hüküm ve cezasını âhirete bırakma kararı; "Kelimetü Rabbike", Rabb'ının sözü (Hûd, 11/119) Allah'ın hükmü, bilgisi; "Kelimetü'l-azâb", azap kelimesi (Zümer, 39/71), "Kelimetü Rabbike", Rabbinin sözü (Mü'min, 40/6) Allah'ın kâfirleri cezalandırma kararı; "Kelimâtullah", Allah'ın sözleri (En'âm, 6/34; Yûnus, 10/62-10/64) Allah'ın Peygamber ve mü'minlere dünya ve âhirette yardım va'di; "Kelimetü Rabbike", Rabb'ının sözü, (Yûnus, 10/33) "Kelimâtihi", sözler (En'âm, 6/115, Kehf, 18/27) Kur'ân ve ahkamı, emir ve yasakları, Allah'ın mükadderatı; "Kelimât", sözler (Bakara, 2/37) Adem (a.s.)'ın Allah'tan alıp nasıl tevbe edeceğini öğrendiği sözler; "Kelimetü'l-küfr", Küfür sözü (Tevbe, 9/74), Münafıkların Hz. Muhammed (a.s.) hakkında söyledikleri ve kendilerini küfre götüren sözler; "Kelimetün minallah", Allah'ın sözü, İsâ (a.s.); "Kelimetüllah" Allah sözü Allah'ın geniş ilmi (Lokmân, 31/27); "Kelimât", sözler, Allah'ın emirleri (Bakara, 2/124) ve ilâhî kitaplar (A'râf, 7/158) anlamında kullanılmıştır. (İ.K.)
İncilde John 1:1 is the first verse in the opening chapter of the Gospel of John. In the Douay–Rheims, King James, New International, and other versions of the Bible, the verse reads: In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God <br


This article is about the unit of speech and writing. For the Microsoft Office word processor, see Microsoft Word. For other uses, see Word (disambiguation).

In linguistics, a word is the smallest element that may be uttered in isolation with semantic or pragmatic content (with literal or practical meaning). This contrasts deeply with a morpheme, which is the smallest unit of meaning but will not necessarily stand on its own. A word may consist of a single morpheme (for example: oh!, rock, red, quick, run, expect), or several (rocks, redness, quickly, running, unexpected), whereas a morpheme may not be able to stand on its own as a word (in the words just mentioned, these are -s, -ness, -ly, -ing, un-, -ed). A complex word will typically include a root and one or more affixes (rock-s, red-ness, quick-ly, run-ning, un-expect-ed), or more than one root in a compound (black-board, rat-race). Words can be put together to build larger elements of language, such as phrases (a red rock), clauses (I threw a rock), and sentences (He threw a rock too, but he missed).

The term word may refer to a spoken word or to a written word, or sometimes to the abstract concept behind either. Spoken words are made up of units of sound called phonemes, and written words of symbols called graphemes, such as the letters of the English alphabet.

Definitions[]

Summary[]

The ease or difficulty of deciphering a word depends on the language. Dictionaries categorize a language's lexicon (i.e., its vocabulary) into lemmas. These can be taken as an indication of what constitutes a "word" in the opinion of the writers of that language. The most appropriate means of measuring the length of a word is by counting its syllables or morphemes.[1]

Semantic definition[]

Leonard Bloomfield introduced the concept of "Minimal Free Forms" in 1926. Words are thought of as the smallest meaningful unit of speech that can stand by themselves.[2] This correlates phonemes (units of sound) to lexemes (units of meaning). However, some written words are not minimal free forms as they make no sense by themselves (for example, the and of).[3]

Some semanticists have put forward a theory of so-called semantic primitives or semantic primes, indefinable words representing fundamental concepts that are intuitively meaningful. According to this theory, semantic primes serve as the basis for describing the meaning, without circularity, of other words and their associated conceptual denotations.[4]

Features[]

In the Minimalist school of theoretical syntax, words (also called lexical items in the literature) are construed as "bundles" of linguistic features that are united into a structure with form and meaning.[5] For example, the word "bears" has semantic features (it denotes real-world objects, bears), category features (it is a noun), number features (it is plural and must agree with verbs, pronouns, and demonstratives in its domain), phonological features (it is pronounced a certain way), etc.

Word boundaries[]

The task of defining what constitutes a "word" involves determining where one word ends and another word begins—in other words, identifying word boundaries. There are several ways to determine where the word boundaries of spoken language should be placed:

  • Potential pause: A speaker is told to repeat a given sentence slowly, allowing for pauses. The speaker will tend to insert pauses at the word boundaries. However, this method is not foolproof: the speaker could easily break up polysyllabic words, or fail to separate two or more closely related words.
  • Indivisibility: A speaker is told to say a sentence out loud, and then is told to say the sentence again with extra words added to it. Thus, I have lived in this village for ten years might become My family and I have lived in this little village for about ten or so years. These extra words will tend to be added in the word boundaries of the original sentence. However, some languages have infixes, which are put inside a word. Similarly, some have separable affixes; in the German sentence "Ich komme gut zu Hause an", the verb ankommen is separated.
  • Phonetic boundaries: Some languages have particular rules of pronunciation that make it easy to spot where a word boundary should be. For example, in a language that regularly stresses the last syllable of a word, a word boundary is likely to fall after each stressed syllable. Another example can be seen in a language that has vowel harmony (like Turkish):[6] the vowels within a given word share the same quality, so a word boundary is likely to occur whenever the vowel quality changes. Nevertheless, not all languages have such convenient phonetic rules, and even those that do present the occasional exceptions.
  • Orthographic boundaries: See below.

Orthography[]

In languages with a literary tradition, there is interrelation between orthography and the question of what is considered a single word. Word separators (typically spaces) are common in modern orthography of languages using alphabetic scripts, but these are (excepting isolated precedents) a relatively modern development (see also history of writing).

In English orthography, compound expressions may contain spaces. For example, ice cream, air raid shelter and get up each are generally considered to consist of more than one word (as each of the components are free forms, with the possible exception of get).

Not all languages delimit words expressly. Mandarin Chinese is a very analytic language (with few inflectional affixes), making it unnecessary to delimit words orthographically. However, there are a great number of multiple-morpheme compounds in Mandarin, as well as a variety of bound morphemes that make it difficult to clearly determine what constitutes a word.

Sometimes, languages which are extremely close grammatically will consider the same order of words in different ways. For example, reflexive verbs in the French infinitive are separate from their respective particle, e.g. se laver ("to wash oneself"), whereas in Portuguese they are hyphenated, e.g. lavar-se, and in Spanish they are joined, e.g. lavarse.[7]

Japanese uses orthographic cues to delimit words such as switching between kanji (Chinese characters) and the two kana syllabaries. This is a fairly soft rule, because content words can also be written in hiragana for effect (though if done extensively spaces are typically added to maintain legibility).

Vietnamese orthography, although using the Latin alphabet, delimits monosyllabic morphemes rather than words.

In character encoding, word segmentation depends on which characters are defined as word dividers.

Morphology[]

Ana madde: Morphology (linguistics)
Dosya:Happy Valentines Day.jpg

Letters and words

In synthetic languages, a single word stem (for example, love) may have a number of different forms (for example, loves, loving, and loved). However, for some purposes these are not usually considered to be different words, but rather different forms of the same word. In these languages, words may be considered to be constructed from a number of morphemes. In Indo-European languages in particular, the morphemes distinguished are

  • the root
  • optional suffixes
  • a desinence, or inflectional suffix.

Thus, the Proto-Indo-European Şablon:PIE would be analyzed as consisting of

  1. Şablon:PIE, the zero grade of the root Şablon:PIE
  2. a root-extension Şablon:PIE (diachronically a suffix), resulting in a complex root Şablon:PIE
  3. The thematic suffix Şablon:PIE
  4. the neuter gender nominative or accusative singular desinence Şablon:PIE.

Philosophy[]

Philosophers have found words objects of fascination since at least the 5th century BC, with the foundation of the philosophy of language. Plato analyzed words in terms of their origins and the sounds making them up, concluding that there was some connection between sound and meaning, though words change a great deal over time. John Locke wrote that the use of words "is to be sensible marks of ideas", though they are chosen "not by any natural connexion that there is between particular articulate sounds and certain ideas, for then there would be but one language amongst all men; but by a voluntary imposition, whereby such a word is made arbitrarily the mark of such an idea".[8] Wittgenstein's thought transitioned from a word as representation of meaning to "the meaning of a word is its use in the language."[9]

Archaeology shows that even for centuries prior to this fascination by philosophers in the 5th century BC, many languages had various ways of expressing this verbal unit, which in turn diversified and evolved into a range of expressions with wide philosophical significance.[citation needed] Ancient manuscripts of the Gospel of John reveal in its 5th chapter the Rabonni Y'shua chastising the pharisees expecting to find life in writings instead of himself. This perhaps could have led to John's introduction in chapter of a description in the Greek translation as "the logos".[clarification needed] A famous early scientist, scholar and priest, Thomas Aquinas, influenced Cartesian philosophy and mathematics by interpreting such passages consistently with his philosophy of logic.[citation needed]

Classes[]

Ana madde: Lexical category
Grammar classifies a language's lexicon into several groups of words. The basic bipartite division possible for virtually every natural language is that of nouns vs. verbs.

The classification into such classes is in the tradition of Dionysius Thrax, who distinguished eight categories: noun, verb, adjective, pronoun, preposition, adverb, conjunction and interjection.

In Indian grammatical tradition, Pāṇini introduced a similar fundamental classification into a nominal (nāma, suP) and a verbal (ākhyāta, tiN) class, based on the set of desinences taken by the word.

See also[]

  • Longest words
  • Utterance

Notes[]

  1. {{{başlık}}}.
  2. Katamba 11
  3. Fleming 77
  4. Wierzbicka 1996; Goddard 2002
  5. Adger (2003), pp. 36–7.
  6. Bauer 9
  7. Note that the convention also depends on the tense or mood—the examples given here are in the infinitive, whereas French imperatives, for example, are hyphenated, e.g. lavez-vous, whereas the Spanish present tense is completely separate, e.g. me lavo.
  8. "Locke ECHU BOOK III Chapter II Of the Signification of Words". Rbjones.com. http://www.rbjones.com/rbjpub/philos/classics/locke/ctb3c02.htm. Retrieved 13 March 2012. 
  9. "Ludwig Wittgenstein (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)". Plato.stanford.edu. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/wittgenstein. Retrieved 13 March 2012. 

References[]

External links[]

Şablon:Word Şablon:Words

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