- "Zamzam" redirects here. For the Iranian soft drink company Zam Zam Group (named after this well), see Zam Zam Cola.
The Well of Zamzam (or the Zamzam Well, or just Zamzam; Arapça: زمزم) is a well located within the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, Şablon:Convert/m east of the Kaaba, the holiest place in Islam. According to Islamic belief, it was a miraculously-generated source of water from God, which began thousands of years ago when Abraham's (Ibrāhīm) infant son Ishmael (ʼIsmāʻīl) was thirsty and kept crying for water and was kicking at the ground when water gushed out. Millions of pilgrims visit the well each year while performing the Hajj or Umrah pilgrimages, in order to drink its water.
Muslims consider the Zamzam well a contemporary miracle, never having gone dry despite the millions of liters of water consumed every year. The safety of consuming water from the well has recently been debated in light of a BBC study into Zamzam water's arsenic content.
Origin of Zamzam Edit
Islamic history states that Zamzam well was revealed to Hagar (Hājar), the second wife of Abraham and mother of Ishmael around the year 2000 BC. According to Islamic tradition, she was desperately seeking water for her infant son, but could find none, as Mecca is located in a hot dry valley with few sources of water. Muslim traditions say that Hagar ran seven times back and forth in the scorching heat between the two hills of Safa and Marwah, looking for water. Getting thirstier by the second, her son, Ismael scraped the land with his feet, where suddenly water sprang out. There are other versions of the story involving God sending his angel, Gabriel (Jibreel), who kicked the ground with his heel and the water rose.
The name of the well comes from the phrase Zomë Zomë, meaning 'stop', a command repeated by Hagar during her attempt to contain the spring water.
According to Islamic tradition, Abraham rebuilt the Bait-ul-Allah ("House of God", cognate of the Hebrew-derived place name Bethel) near the site of the well, a building which had been originally constructed by Adam (Adem), and today is called the Kaaba, a building toward which all Muslims around the world face in prayer, five times each day. The Zamzam well is located approximately Şablon:Convert/m east of the Kaaba.
HistoryEditAccording to IslamOnline, the well originally had two cisterns in the first era, one for drinking and one for ablution. At that time, it was a simple well surrounded by a fence of stones. Then in the era of the Abbasid caliph Al-Mansur 771 AD (149 AH) a dome was built above the well, and it was tiled with marble. In 775 AD (153 AH), Al-Mahdi rebuilt the well during his caliphate, and built a dome of teak which was covered with mosaic. One small dome covered the well, and a larger dome covered the room for the pilgrims. In 835 AD (213 AH) there was further restoration, and the dome was covered with marble during the caliphate of Al-Mu'tasim.
In 1417 (795 AH), during the time of the Mamluks, the mosque was damaged by fire, and required restoration. Further restoration occurred in 1430 (808 AH), and again in 1499 (877 AH) during the time of Sultan Qaitbay, when the marble was replaced.
In modern times, the most extensive restoration took place to the dome during the era of the Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II in 1915 (1333 AH). To facilitate crowd control, the building housing the Zamzam was moved away from its original location, to get it out of the way of the Tawaf, when millions of pilgrims would circumambulate the Kaaba. The water of the well is now pumped to the eastern part of the mosque, where it was made available in separate locations for men and women.
Technical information Edit
The Zamzam well was excavated by hand, and is about Şablon:Convert/m deep and Şablon:Convert/to in diameter. It taps groundwater from the wadi alluvium and some from the bedrock. Originally water from the well was drawn via ropes and buckets, but today the well itself is in a basement room where it can be seen behind glass panels (visitors are not allowed to enter). Electric pumps draw the water, which is available throughout the Masjid al-Haram via water fountains and dispensing containers near the Tawaf area.
Hydrogeologically, the well is in the Wadi Ibrahim (Valley of Abraham). The upper half of the well is in the sandy alluvium of the valley, lined with stone masonry except for the top Şablon:Convert/m which has a concrete "collar". The lower half is in the bedrock. Between the alluvium and the bedrock is a Şablon:Convert/m section of permeable weathered rock, lined with stone, and it is this section that provides the main water entry into the well. Water in the well comes from absorbed rainfall in the Wadi Ibrahim, as well as run-off from the local hills. Since the area has become more and more settled, water from absorbed rainfall on the Wadi Ibrahim has decreased.
The Saudi Geological Survey has a "Zamzam Studies and Research Centre" which analyses the technical properties of the well in detail. Water levels were monitored by hydrograph, which in more recent times has changed to a digital monitoring system that tracks the water level, electric conductivity, pH, Eh, and temperature. All of this information is made continuously available via the Internet. Other wells throughout the valley have also been established, some with digital recorders, to monitor the response of the local aquifer system.
The water level is Şablon:Convert/m below the surface. A pumping test at Şablon:Convert/L/s for more than a 24 hour period showed a drop in water level from Şablon:Convert/m below surface to Şablon:Convert/m and then to Şablon:Convert/m, after which the water level stopped receding. When pumping stopped, the water level recovered to Şablon:Convert/m below surface only 11 minutes later. This data shows that the aquifer feeding the well seems to recharge from rock fractures in neighbouring mountains around Mecca.
Zamzam water has no colour or smell, but it has a distinct taste, and its pH is 7.9–8.0, indicating that it is alkaline to some extent and is similar to seawater.
- Sodium Şablon:Convert/mg/L
- Calcium Şablon:Convert/mg/L
- Magnesium Şablon:Convert/mg/L
- Potassium Şablon:Convert/mg/L
- Bicarbonate Şablon:Convert/mg/L
- Chloride Şablon:Convert/mg/L
- Fluoride Şablon:Convert/mg/L
- Nitrate Şablon:Convert/mg/L
- Sulfate Şablon:Convert/mg/L
- pH 8
- Total dissolve alkalinity Şablon:Convert/mg/L
Health risks and saleEdit
In May 2011, a BBC London investigation found that Zamzam water marketed as having been taken from the Zamzam Well contained high levels of nitrate, potentially harmful bacteria, and arsenic at levels three times the legal limit in the UK. Arsenic is a carcinogen, raising concerns that Muslims who regularly consume commercial zamzam in large quantities may be exposed to higher risks of cancer. The British Food Standards Agency has in the past issued warnings about water claiming to be Zamzam containing dangerous levels of arsenic; such sales have also been reported in the UAE, where it is illegal to sell Zamzam. The Saudi government has prohibited the commercial export of Zamzam from the kingdom. However, there is a strong commercial demand for Zamzam which has resulted in continued commercial distribution of water alleged to be Zamzam.
The BBC's findings have drawn mixed reactions from the Muslim community. Environmental health officer Dr Yunes Ramadan Teinaz told the British broadcaster about commercially marketed Zamzam that, "People see this water as a holy water. They find it difficult to accept that it is contaminated, but the authorities in Saudi Arabia or in the U.K. must take action." The Saudi authorities have stated that water from the well was tested by the Group Laboratories of CARSO-LSEHL in Lyon, licensed by the French Ministry of Health for the testing of drinking water. According to reports of these results, the level of arsenic in Zamzam water taken at its source is much lower than the maximum amount permitted by the World Health Organization. The Saudi authorities have thus said that the water is fit for human consumption. Zuhair Nawab, president of the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS), has claimed that Zamzam is tested on a daily basis, in a process involving the taking of three samples from the well. These are said to be examined in the King Abdullah Zamzam Water Distribution Center in Mecca, which is equipped with advanced facilities.
- ↑ 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 "Zamzam Studies and Research Centre". Saudi Geological Survey. Archived from the original on February 5, 2005. http://web.archive.org/web/20050205152331/http://www.sgs.org.sa/index.cfm?sec=311&page=. Retrieved 2005-06-05.
- ↑ (Genesis 16:3
- ↑ 3,0 3,1 3,2 Şablon hatası:başlık gerekiyor.
- ↑ 4,0 4,1 4,2 4,3 Shil, Mahmoud Isma`il & `Abdul-Wahid, `Abdur-Rahman. "The Well of Zam zam". IslamOnline. Archived from the original on November 27, 2005. http://web.archive.org/web/20051127041248/http://www.islamonline.net/English/hajj/Landmarks/1425/08.shtml. Retrieved 2005-06-06.
- ↑ Mahmoud Isma'il Shil and 'Abdur-Rahman 'Abdul-Wahid. "Historic Places: The Well of Zamzam". Archived from the original on February 23, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080223204039/http://www.islamonline.net/English/hajj/2002/01/stories/article4.shtml. Retrieved 2008-08-06.
- ↑ A comparative study between the chemical composition of potable water and Zamzam water in Saudi Arabia by Nour Al Zuhair and Rita Khounganian
- ↑ Şablon hatası:başlık gerekiyor.
- ↑ Zam Zam water warning, 2005-10-20, Food Standards Agency
- ↑ http://www.waleg.com/archives/022874.html
- ↑ http://www.adweek.com/adfreak/holy-water-mecca-marketed-illegally-uk-131396
- ↑ http://arabnews.com/saudiarabia/article386684.ece
- ↑ Şablon hatası:başlık gerekiyor.
- ↑ http://www.arabnews.com/saudiarabia/article386684.ece
- Hawting, G. R. (1980). "The Disappearance and Rediscovery of Zamzam and the 'Well of the Ka'ba'". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 43 (1): 44–54.
- Careem, S. H. A. "The Miracle of Zamzam". Sunday Observer. http://www.sundayobserver.lk/2005/01/30/fea36.html. Retrieved 2005-06-05. Provides a brief history of the well and some information on the alleged health benefits of Zamzam water.
- Moin Uddin Ahmed "Makkah's Water of Benison AbeZamZam". http://hasanahmed.net/mua/abezamzam.htm. A unique and first hand account of the well by a person who got the opportunity to actually step inside it and gather scientific details.
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